Index
I-51
Spinal nerve plexuses, 501
f
,
503
Spinal reflexes,
513
–519.
See also
specific type
Spinal rootlets, 465
f
,
501
, 502
f
Spinal roots, 466–468, 468
f
,
501
–502,
502
f
Spinal shock,
474
Spindle
mitotic, 100
f
muscle, 486
t
,
487
, 514, 514
f
, 515
f
,
516
f
adjusting sensitivity of, 517
Spindle equator, 101
f
Spine (bone marking), 179, 180
t
Spine (spinal/vertebral column), 200
f
,
218
–224, 218
f
, 219
f
, 220
f
,
221
f
, 222
f
, 223
t
, 224
f
developmental aspects of, 244–
245, 245
f
muscles of, 336–338
t
, 339
f
osteoporotic fractures of, 192, 245
Spinocerebellar pathways/tracts,
469
,
469
f
, 470
f
, 471
t
Spinothalamic pathways/tracts,
469
,
469
f
, 470
f
, 471
t
Spinous process, vertebral, 219
f
,
220
,
220
f
, 222
f
, 223
t
of vertebra prominens, 221
Spiral (coiled) arteries, of uterus,
1039
, 1039
f
Spiral fracture, 190
t
Spiral ganglion, 498
t
, 574
f
,
579
,
579
f
Spiral lamina, osseous,
573
, 574
f
Spiral organ (organ of Corti),
573
,
573
f
, 574
f
, 576
t
, 579
f
excitation of hair cells in, 577,
577
f
, 578–579, 578
f
Spirometer, for pulmonary function
testing,
823
Splanchnic circulation,
854
Splanchnic mesoderm, 1077, 1079
f
Splanchnic nerves,
531
lumbar,
531
, 532
f
pelvic, 528
f
,
529
sacral,
531
, 532
f
thoracic, 530
f
, 531, 532
f
Spleen, 756
f
,
757
–758, 757
f
, 850
f
autonomic innervation/effects
and, 532
f
enlargement of (splenomegaly),
763
Splenectomy, 758
Splenic artery, 730
f
, 731
f
,
731
t
, 757,
757
f
Splenic capsule, 757
f
, 758
Splenic cords, 757
f
,
758
Splenic (leF colic) flexure,
887
, 888
f
Splenic sinusoids, 757
f
,
758
Splenic vein, 737
f
, 742–743
f
,
742
t
,
757, 757
f
Splenius capitis/cervicis muscles,
331
f
,
336
t
, 337
f
Splenomegaly,
763
Spliceosomes, 104
Spondylitis, ankylosing,
275
Spongy bone, 129
t
,
177
, 177
f
, 178
f
in endochondral ossification, 184,
184
f
microscopic anatomy of, 177
f
,
181–182
primary,
1029
, 1031
f
secondary,
1029
, 1031
f
Spermatogenesis,
1027
, 1029–1033,
1031
f
, 1032
f
hormonal regulation and,
1033–1035, 1034
f
oogenesis compared with, 1045
sustenocytes in, 1031
f
,
1032
–1033
Spermatogenic cells, 1020, 1021
f
,
1029
, 1031
f
Spermatogonia,
1029
, 1031
f
mitosis of, 1029, 1031
f
Spermatozoa.
See
Sperm
Sperm-binding receptors, 1067, 1069
f
Spermicides, for contraception, 1090
b
Spermiogenesis,
1029
–1032, 1031
f
,
1032
f
S (synthetic) phase
of cell cycle,
97
, 97
f
, 100
f
DNA replication during, 97, 97
f
,
98
f
Sphenoidal fontanelle, 244
f
Sphenoidal process, 212
Sphenoidal sinuses, 205
f
,
209
, 214
f
,
215
f
, 804
f
Sphenoid bone, 203
f
, 204
f
, 205
f
, 206
f
,
207
f
,
209
–210, 209
f
, 214
f
,
216
t
Sphincter(s), 322, 322
f
.
See also
specific type
in alimentary canal, 855
laryngeal structures as, 809
Sphincter pupillae muscles, 549, 549
f
,
556
Sphingolipids, in plasma membrane,
65
Sphygmomanometer, 710
Spina bifida,
248
,
476
, 476
f
Spina bifida cystica, 476
Spina bifida occulta, 476
Spinal (vertebral) cavity,
14
, 18
f
Spinal column.
See
Spine
Spinal cord, 387, 388
f
,
464
–474
autonomic regulation by, 538, 538
f
cross-sectional anatomy of,
466–468, 467
f
, 468
f
development of, 429
f
, 430
f
,
475–477, 476
f
gray matter of, 466–468, 467
f
gross anatomy of, 464–466, 465
f
protection of, 464–466, 465
f
, 466
f
regeneration and, 492
trauma/disorders of, 474
white matter of, 467
f
Spinal curvatures, 218, 218
f
,
244
, 245
f
abnormal, 218–219, 219
f
,
244–245
vertebral collapse/osteoporosis
and, 245
Spinal dura mater,
464
, 465
f
Spinal fusion,
248
Spinal (dorsal root) ganglion,
466
,
467
f
, 468
f
, 475, 491, 502
f
Spinalis cervicis/thoracis muscle,
338
t
, 339
f
Spinal meninges, 464, 465
f
, 466
f
, 467
f
Spinal nerve(s), 387, 388
f
, 465
f
, 466,
467
f
,
468
, 468
f
,
501
–511, 501
f
,
502
f
dermatomes innervated by,
509
–510, 510
f
development of, 519
Sound/sound waves,
575
–576, 575
f
,
576
f
cortical processing of, 579
localization of, 579
transmission of to internal ear,
577, 577
f
Sound transduction, 578
Sour taste, 569
Spasm (muscle),
318
Spastic paralysis,
474
Spatial discrimination,
435
,
489
Spatial summation, by postsynaptic
neuron, 411
f
,
412
, 412
t
Special senses,
485
,
544
–590.
See also
specific sense and structure
case study and, 590
b
chemical (taste and smell),
565–570, 584–585
developmental aspects of,
584–586
ear (hearing and balance),
570–584, 571
f
, 585
eye and vision,
545
–565, 545
f
, 585
Special sensory receptors,
485
,
544
.
See also
specific type
Specific gravity, of urine,
979
Specific (adaptive) immune system/
defenses,
765
, 765
f
,
773
–796,
791
f
, 792
t
antigens, 773–
774
, 774
f
cells of, 774–778, 775
f
, 776
f
, 777
f
,
779
t
, 792
t
cellular immune response, 779
t
,
784–790, 785
f
, 786
f
, 787
f
, 788
f
,
789
f
, 790
t
humoral immune response, 765
f
,
773
, 778–784, 779
f
, 779
t
, 780
f
,
781
f
, 782
f
, 783
t
Spectrin, 51
t
, 634
Spectroscopy, magnetic resonance
(MRS),
17
b
Speech, laryngeal voice production
and, 808–809
Speech area, motor (Broca’s area),
433
–435, 434
f
Speed lever, 323, 324
f
Sperm (spermatozoa), 90, 95
t
, 1019,
1027,
1029
–1032, 1031
f
, 1032
f
formation of, (spermatogenesis),
1027
, 1029–1033, 1031
f
,
1032
f
, 1045
infertility and, 1033
maturation/storage/ejaculation of
from epididymis, 1024
penetration of oocyte by
(fertilization), 1044
f
, 1045,
1065
1067, 1065
f
, 1068–1069
f
, 1070
f
transport of, 1065–1066
Spermatic cord, 1020
f
, 1021
f
,
1022
,
1055
Spermatic fascia
external, 1020
f
internal, 1020
f
Spermatids,
1029
, 1031
f
differentiation of into sperm
(spermiogenesis),
1029
–1032,
1031
f
, 1032
f
Spermatocytes
formation of, 1029, 1031
f
meiosis of (spermatid formation),
1029, 1031
f
Soluble fiber, 908
Solute(s),
29
exchanges of among fluid
compartments, 993, 993
f
tubular reabsorption of, 969–970,
970
f
Solute pumps,
73
, 78
t
Solution(s),
29
–30, 29
f
Solvent(s),
29
skin penetrated by, 162
universal (water), 29,
38
, 991
Soma (cell body), of neurons,
390
,
391
f
, 394
t
Somatic afferent fibers/nerves, 387,
388
f
, 490
Somatic efferent nerves, 490
Somatic mesoderm, 1077, 1079
f
Somatic (primary) motor cortex,
433
,
434
f
, 435, 435
f
Somatic motor fibers, 387, 388
f
, 490
Somatic motor (SM) neurons, 286,
286
f
, 287
f
, 311
t
,
468
, 468
f
.
See
also
Motor (efferent) neurons
Somatic nervous system,
387
, 388
f
autonomic nervous system
compared with, 525–526, 526
f
motor neurons of, 286, 286
f
, 287
f
,
311
t
,
468
, 468
f
.
See also
Motor
(efferent) neurons
sensory neurons of,
468
, 468
f
.
See also
Sensory (afferent)
neurons
Somatic recombination,
513
antigen receptor diversity and,
777
Somatic sensory areas, 434
f
Somatic sensory fibers, 387, 388
f
, 490
Somatic sensory (SS) neurons,
468
, 468
f
.
See also
Sensory
(afferent) neurons
Somatodendritic synapses, 407
Somatomammotropin, human
chorionic (hCS/human
placental lactogen), 1074,
1083
Somatosensory association cortex,
434
f
,
436
Somatosensory cortex, primary, 434
f
,
435
–436, 435
f
, 476
Somatosensory homunculus, 435
f
,
436
Somatosensory system,
487
–489, 488
f
Somatostatin (growth hormone-
inhibiting hormone/GHIH),
416
t
, 417, 601
f
, 602
t
, 603
t
,
604
,
866
–867
digestion/gastric secretion and,
866
–867, 868
t
pancreas producing, 618
Somatotopy,
433
, 435
f
, 468
Somatotropic cells,
602
Somatotropin/somatotropic
hormone.
See
Growth
hormone
Somites, 1076
f
,
1077
, 1078
f
, 1079
f
Sonography (ultrasound),
16
–17
b
,
1094
in stroke evaluation, 475
Sörensen, Sören, 40
Sound quality,
576
Sounds of Korotkoff, 710
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