I-50
Index
SNARE proteins, information
transfer at chemical synapse
and, 408
Sneeze, 805, 824
t
Sodium, 26
t
, 913, 915
t
absorption of, 897
balance of, 997–999, 999
t
abnormalities of, 998
t
developmental aspects of,
1012
regulation of, 999–1000,
1000
f
, 1001
f
, 1002
f
as chemically reactive element,
31
f
concentration versus content and,
999, 999
t
dietary, 913, 915
t
in fluid and electrolyte balance,
997–999, 998
t
, 999
t
in plasma/interstitial fluid/
intracellular fluid, 992–993,
992
f
resting membrane potential and,
79
f
, 80, 397, 398
f
sodium chloride formation and,
32, 32
f
in taste transduction, 569
tubular reabsorption of, 968–969,
970
f
, 973
f
, 999–1000, 1000
f
Sodium bicarbonate, 41, 1005.
See
also
Bicarbonate
Sodium channels, 396
f
action potential and, 400–401,
402–403
f
muscle contraction and, 287
f
, 288,
288
f
, 289, 289
f
in cardiac muscle, 672, 673
f
Sodium chloride, formation of, 32,
32
f
Sodium-glucose symport transporter
(Na
1
-glucose symport
transporter), 75
f
, 897
f
Sodium hydroxide, 39, 1005
Sodium-potassium pump (Na
1
-K
1
ATPase),
73
action potential and, 401
carbohydrate absorption and,
896, 897
f
in primary active transport, 73,
74
f
, 75
f
tubular reabsorption of
sodium and, 969, 970
f
resting membrane potential and,
80, 397, 398
f
in secondary active transport, 73
tubular reabsorption of
nutrients/water/ions and,
969, 970
f
tubular reabsorption of
sodium and, 969, 970
f
SoF callus, in bone repair, 191, 191
f
SoF keratin, 157, 160.
See also
Keratin
SoF palate,
803
, 804
f
, 856
f
,
857
Sole of foot, muscles on, 376–378
t
,
377
f
, 379
f
Soleus muscle, 326
f
, 327
f
, 371
f
, 372
f
,
373
t
, 374–375
f
, 380
t
Sol-gel transformation,
30
Solid(s), 24
Solitary nucleus, in gustatory
pathway,
569
, 570
f
Sleep apnea,
455
, 842
Sleep patterns, 454–455
Sleep-wake cycles, 454–455, 454
f
hypothalamus and, 442, 454
reticular activating system and,
451, 454
Sliding filament model of
contraction,
285
, 285
f
in smooth muscle, 307
Slipped (herniated/prolapsed) disc,
219
–220, 220
f
, 245
Slit diaphragm, 964
f
, 965
Slow block to polyspermy, 1066,
1069
f
Slow Ca
2
1
channels, in cardiac
muscle contraction,
673
, 673
f
Slow fibers, 302–303,
302
, 303
f
, 303
t
Slow oxidative fibers, 302–303,
302
,
303
f
, 303
t
Slow-wave sleep,
454
Small cardiac vein, 663
f
,
670
, 670
f
Small cell carcinoma, of lung,
841
Small cell (lateral) nuclear group,
450
Small intestine, 850
f
, 874–875,
875
878, 875
f
, 876
f
, 877
f
, 885
t
autonomic innervation/effects
and, 528
f
, 532
f
, 886, 886
t
bile and pancreatic juice secreted
into, 883–884, 884
f
in calcium regulation, 1003
digestive processes occurring in,
851
f
, 876–877, 876
f
, 884–887,
885
t
, 886
t
, 893
f
, 894
f
, 895
motility of, 886–887, 886
t
Small RNAs, 1102
Small saphenous vein, 737
f
, 744
f
,
744
t
Smell, 565–567, 566
f
, 567
f
.
See also
under Olfactory
cortical areas for, 434
f
, 436, 567
development of sense of, 584–585
disorders/homeostatic imbalances
in sense of, 570
taste sensation and, 569
Smell transduction, 567, 567
f
Smoking
COPD and, 839, 840
hypertension and, 711
lung cancer and, 841
pregnancy and, 1083
tracheal cilia affected by, 809
Smooth endoplasmic reticulum, 63
f
,
84
–85, 84
f
, 87
f
, 94
t
Smooth muscle/smooth muscle
tissue,
138
, 139
f
,
277
, 305–
309, 310–311
t
bronchial, 811
contraction of, 307–309, 308
f
,
311
t
development of, 312–315
innervation of, 306, 306
f
, 308,
311
t
microscopic anatomy of, 305–
307, 306
f
, 307
f
multi unit,
309
unitary (visceral),
309
Smooth muscle fibers/cells, 305–307,
306
f
, 307
f
, 310
t
Smooth muscle plasticity, gastric
accommodation and, 873
Smooth muscle tone, 308
Skills (procedural) memory,
457
, 457
f
Skin (cutaneous membrane/
integument), 6
f
, 122,
140
,
141
f
, 150–157
aging affecting, 167
appendages of, 151
f
,
157
–162,
158
f
, 160
f
, 161
f
.
See also
specific structure
artificial/synthetic, for burn
injury, 166
autonomic innervation/effects
and, 527
f
, 532
f
, 537, 540
b
biological barriers and, 163
as blood reservoir, 163
in body defense, 5, 5
f
, 6
f
, 162–163,
764, 765–766, 765
f
, 770
t
boundary maintenance and, 5, 5
f
,
6
f
, 118, 162–163
burn injury and,
165
–167, 165
f
,
166
f
case study and, 172
b
chemical barriers/protective
secretions and, 162, 765, 770
t
color of, 156–157
polygenic inheritance and,
1101, 1101
f
cutaneous sensation (receptors/
sense organs) and, 151
f
, 152,
153
f
, 154,
163
developmental aspects of, 167
excretion via, 163
functions of, 6
f
, 151, 162–164
homeostatic imbalances of, 164–
167, 164
f
, 165
f
, 166
f
homeostatic relationships of, 5
f
,
168
b
hormones produced by, 622
t
, 623
innervation of, 509–510, 510
f
metabolic functions of, 163
nervous structures in, 151
f
perfusion (blood flow) of, 712
f
,
715
in thermoregulation, 163, 715
as physical barrier, 162–163
protective functions of, 5, 5
f
, 6
f
,
162–163, 764, 765–766, 765
f
,
770
t
sun damage and, 156
melanin in protection from,
152, 156, 162
in temperature regulation, 163
thick,
152
thin,
152
Skin cancer, 164–165, 164
f
Skin-fold test,
953
Skin graFs, for burn injury, 166
Skin patch, for contraception, 1090–
1091
b
Skin pigments, 156
Skin (decubitus) ulcers,
171
Skull, 200
f
,
201
–215, 201
f
, 202
f
,
203
f
, 204–205
f
, 206
f
, 207
f
,
216–217
t
, 254
t
congenital abnormalities
affecting, 244, 244
f
developmental aspects of, 244,
244
f
Sleep, 454–455, 454
f
electroencephalogram/brain
waves during, 452, 453
f
, 454,
454
f
, 455
Skeletal muscle(s)/skeletal muscle
tissue,
(contd.)
metabolism in, 298–301, 299
f
, 300
f
glycogenolysis and, 933, 934
f
microscopic anatomy of,
279–285, 280
f
, 283
t
movement and, 5, 6
f
, 256, 277
naming, 320–322
skeletal system (bones) and, 195
b
,
314
b
lever systems and,
323
–324,
323–324
f
, 325
f
thyroid hormone affecting, 607,
607
t
Skeletal muscle fibers/cells,
138
, 138
f
,
277
, 279–285,
280
f
,
283
t
, 310
t
.
See also
Skeletal muscle(s)/
skeletal muscle tissue
anatomy of, 279–285, 280
f
, 283
t
in motor unit, 293, 294
f
naming muscles and, 320
physiology/contraction of,
285–293, 286
f
, 287
f
, 288
f
.
See
also
Skeletal muscle(s)/skeletal
muscle tissue, contraction of
force of contraction affected
by, 301–302, 301
f
, 302
f
types of, 303–304, 303
f
, 303
t
Skeletal system, 6
f
,
199
–248, 200
f
.
See also
Cartilage(s); Joint(s);
Ligament(s); Skeleton
autonomic nervous system and,
195
b
, 540
b
cardiovascular system and, 195
b
,
746
b
case study and, 198
b
, 248
b
digestive system and, 195
b
, 900
b
endocrine system and, 195
b
, 626
b
functions of, 6
f
homeostatic relationships of, 195
b
integumentary system and, 168
b
,
195
b
lymphatic system and, 195
b
, 761
b
movement and, 5, 6
f
muscular system and, 195
b
, 314
b
lever systems and,
323
–324,
323–324
f
, 325
f
parathyroid hormone affecting,
188, 188
f
reproductive system and, 195
b
,
1059
b
respiratory system and, 195
b
, 843
b
thyroid hormone affecting, 607,
607
t
urinary system and, 195
b
, 1013
b
Skeleton,
199
–248, 200
f
.
See also
Bone(s)/skeletal tissue
appendicular,
174
, 175
f
, 200
f
,
227
–243, 243
t
axial,
174
, 175
f
,
199
–227, 200
f
case study and, 198
b
, 248
b
developmental aspects of, 244–
245, 244
f
, 245
f
homeostatic imbalances and,
244–245, 244
f
hormones produced by, 177, 622
t
,
623
parathyroid hormone affecting,
188, 188
f
thyroid hormone affecting, 607,
607
t
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