Index
I-49
cross bridge activity and,
281
,
284
f
, 289–293,
292
f
energy for, 298–300, 299
f
, 300
f
excess postexercise oxygen
consumption (EPOC)
and,
301
excitation-contraction
coupling and, 286
f
,
289
,
290–291
f
fiber types affecting velocity/
duration of, 303–304, 303
f
,
303
t
force of, 301–302, 301
f
, 302
f
frequency of stimulation
affecting force and, 294–
295, 295
f
, 301–302, 301
f
graded responses and,
294
296, 295
f
, 296
f
heat production and, 278,
301, 944
ion channels in, 287
f
, 288,
288
f
, 289, 289
f
isometric, 293, 297
f
,
298
isotonic, 293,
297
–298, 297
f
load affecting,
293
, 304, 304
f
motor unit and,
293
, 294
f
muscle fatigue and, 295,
300
–301
muscle stretch affecting force
of, 301
f
, 302, 302
f
, 311
t
muscle tone and,
298
muscle twitch and,
293
–294,
295
f
nerve stimulus/neuromuscular
junction events and, 286,
286
f
, 287
f
, 311
t
stimulus frequency and,
294–295, 295
f
,
301–302, 301
f
stimulus strength and,
296, 296
f
number of stimulated fibers
affecting force of, 301, 301
f
recruitment affecting,
296
,
296
f
, 304
sarcoplasmic reticulum and T
tubules in,
284
, 310
t
, 311
t
of single muscle fiber, 285–
293, 285
f
, 286
f
, 287
f
, 288
f
size of fibers affecting force of,
301, 301
f
sliding filament model of,
285
,
285
f
velocity/duration of, 302–304,
303
f
, 303
t
, 304
f
of whole muscle, 293–298,
294
f
, 295
f
, 296
f
, 297
f
development of, 312–315, 312
f
,
313
b
exercise affecting, 304–305
glycogenolysis in, 933, 934
f
gross anatomy of, 278–279, 279
f
,
283
t
homeostatic imbalances and,
312–315
homeostatic relationships of, 314
b
innervation of, 278, 511
motor units,
293
, 294
f
nerve stimulus/
neuromuscular junction
events and, 286, 286
f
, 287
f
Sigmoid sinus, 738–739
f
,
738
t
Signaling chemicals, 81
Signaling pathways, in cancer, drugs
targeting, 146
b
Signal recognition particle (SRP),
105, 108
f
Signal sequence,
105
, 108
f
Signal transduction, membrane
proteins in, 65, 66
f
Silicon, 26
t
Simple carbohydrates, 909
t
.
See also
Sugars
Simple diffusion,
68
, 69
f
, 72
t
Simple epithelium, 119–122,
119
,
119
f
, 120–121
f
columnar,
120
, 121
f
cuboidal,
120
, 121
f
pseudostratified columnar,
120–122
, 122
f
squamous,
120
, 120
f
Simple follicle retention cysts, 1063
Simple (closed) fracture, 191
Simple glands,
124
, 126
f
Simple mastectomy,
1043
Simple sugars (monosaccharides),
43
,
44
f
,
892
Sine wave, 575
f
, 576
Single covalent bond, 32–33, 33
f
Single-stranded microRNAs, 1102
Sinoatrial (SA) node,
675
, 675
f
defective, 676
Sinus (bone marking), 179, 180
t
Sinuses, paranasal,
215
, 215
f
, 805
t
,
806
Sinus headache, 806
Sinusitis,
806
Sinusoids/sinusoidal capillaries,
636
,
695
f
,
697
, 697
f
endometrial, 1039, 1039
f
in liver,
878
, 880
f
in splenic pulp, 757
f
,
758
Sinus rhythm,
675
, 679
f
Sinus venosus,
685
, 686
f
Sister chromatids, 93
f
, 100
f
, 1028
f
,
1029, 1030
f
Size principle of recruitment, 296, 296
f
Skeletal cartilages, 173–
174
, 175
f
Skeletal muscle(s)/skeletal muscle
tissue,
138
, 138
f
,
277
,
278
305, 283
t
, 310–311
t
,
319
–385.
See also
specific named muscle
and
Muscular system; Skeletal
muscle fibers/cells
actions/interactions of, 319–320,
321
f
anabolic steroids affecting, 312,
313
b
attachments of, 278–279
naming muscles and, 320
blood supply of, 278, 712, 712
f
,
713–714
case study and, 318
b
connective tissue sheaths of, 278,
279
f
, 283
t
, 310
t
contraction of, 277, 285–293,
285
,
285
f
, 286
f
, 287
f
, 288
f
, 293–298,
294
f
, 295
f
, 296
f
, 297
f
, 311
t
action potential generation/
propagation and,
285
–286,
286–289, 286
f
, 287
f
, 288
f
,
289
f
Sex-linked inheritance,
1100
–1101,
1101
f
Sexual differentiation, 1055, 1056
f
,
1057
f
Sexually indifferent stage,
1055
,
1056
f
, 1057
f
Sexually transmitted infections/
diseases (STIs/STDs),
1053
–1054
urinary infections and, 985
Sexual response
female,
1051
–1053
male, 1026–1027
ShaF
of bone
of metacarpals, 232
f
of rib, 226, 226
f
hair, 151
f
, 157, 158
f
of penis, 1022, 1023
f
Sharpey’s (perforating) fibers,
178–179, 178
f
, 182
f
Shell temperature,
944
Shinbone.
See
Tibia
Shingles (herpes zoster),
427
Shin splints,
384
Shivering, 944, 946
Shock
anaphylactic, 717,
795
cardiogenic,
717
circulatory,
717
, 720
f
autonomic effects and,
536–537
hypotension and, 711
hypovolemic,
717
, 720
f
, 967, 995
neurogenic, 717
septic (sepsis), 717,
800
in burn injury, 165
spinal,
474
vascular,
717
Shock wave lithotripsy, for renal
calculi, 980
Short bones,
175
–176, 176
f
, 177
Short interfering RNAs, 1102
Short-lived RNA, 102
Short reflexes, 852, 853
f
, 886, 886
t
Short-term (working) memory
(STM),
456
, 456
f
Shoulder blades.
See
Scapulae
Shoulder dislocation, 228, 264
Shoulder (pectoral) girdle,
227
bones of, 200
f
,
227
–228, 227
f
,
233
t
muscles of, 326
f
, 327
f
, 346–348
t
,
347–349
f
, 358
t
Shoulder (glenohumeral) joint, 254
t
,
264, 265
f
muscles crossing/acting on, 326
f
,
327
f
, 350–352
t
, 351–352
f
, 358
t
SIADH.
See
Syndrome of
inappropriate ADH secretion
Sickle-cell anemia,
639
–640, 639
f
,
1100
Sickle-cell crisis, 1100
Sickle-cell trait, 640,
1100
Sickling gene(s), 639–640, 1100
genetic screening for, 1103
SIDS (sudden infant death
syndrome),
848
Sigmoidal artery, 730
f
,
732
t
, 733
f
Sigmoid colon, 850
f
,
887
, 888
f
Sigmoid mesocolon, 889
f
for special senses.
See
Special
senses
Sensory terminals (receptive
endings), 393, 394
t
Sentinel node, in cancer,
763
Sepsis (septic shock), 717,
800
burn injury and, 165
Septal cartilage, 214
f
, 215, 803, 803
f
Septal defects of heart, 686, 687
f
Septal nuclei, 449, 449
f
Septicemia,
657
Septic shock (sepsis), 717,
800
in burn injury, 165
Septum
interatrial,
662
interventricular,
662
, 665
f
nasal, 215
deviated,
848
scrotal, 1019, 1020
f
testicular, 1020, 1021
f
Septum pellucidum,
430
, 431
f
, 440
f
Serial processing,
421
–422, 422
f
Seromucous glands
nasal, 805, 844
tracheal, 809, 810
f
Serosa(e),
18
,
142
.
See also
Serous
membranes
Serotonin, 414, 415
t
,
647
,
866
in bone remodeling, 187
digestion/gastric secretion and,
866
, 868
t
platelet aggregation and,
647
Serous cells,
858
in salivary glands,
858
, 858
f
Serous fluid,
18
, 19
f
, 142
Serous membranes (serosae),
18
–19,
19
f
, 141
f
,
142
of alimentary canal (visceral
peritoneum), 18, 141
f
,
852
,
853
f
, 854
f
,
855
, 889
f
of stomach, 865
f
, 867
f
Serous pericardium,
660
, 661
f
Serratus anterior muscle, 326
f
,
346
t
,
347
f
Sertoli cells (sustenocytes), 1020,
1021
f
, 1031
f
,
1032
–1033
Serum,
649
Sesamoid bones,
175
–176, 232
f
Set point, in homeostasis, 9
Severe combined immunodeficiency
(SCID) syndromes,
793
Sex (gender)
basal metabolic rate and, 941
genetic, determination of, 1054–
1055
Sex characteristics, secondary
female, 1051, 1052
t
, 1058
male, 1034–1035, 1052
t
, 1058
Sex chromosomes,
1054
,
1096
,
1101
f
homeostatic imbalances and,
1054–1055
inheritance patterns and,
1100
1101, 1101
f
Sex hormones, 46
t
, 47,
1018
.
See also
specific hormone
adrenal, 612,
615
, 616
t
bone growth and, 186
gonadal secretion of, 620
protein synthesis/growth and, 910
terminal hair growth and, 159
previous page 1253 Human Anatomy and Physiology (9th ed ) 2012 read online next page 1255 Human Anatomy and Physiology (9th ed ) 2012 read online Home Toggle text on/off