I-48
Index
Sella turcica, 205
f
, 207
f
,
209
, 209
f
,
214
f
,
216
t
Semen, 1024,
1026
Semicircular canals, 571
f
,
573
, 573
f
,
576
t
in equilibrium, 580, 581, 582
f
Semicircular duct,
573
, 573
f
, 576
t
Semiconservative replication (DNA),
97
, 98
f
Semilunar cartilages (menisci of
knee),
262
–263, 262–263
f
injuries of, 264, 264
f
, 269, 269
f
Semilunar valves, 666
f
,
667
, 668
f
.
See
also
Aortic valve; Pulmonary
valve
Semimembranosus muscle, 327
f
,
367
f
,
369
t
, 380
t
Seminal glands/vesicles, 1019, 1019
f
,
1023
f
,
1024
–1025, 1056
f
Seminiferous tubules,
1020
, 1021
f
,
1031
f
spermatogenesis in, 1020,
1029–1033, 1031
f
, 1032
f
Semispinalis capitis/cervicis/thoracis
muscle,
338
t
, 339
f
Semitendinosus muscle, 327
f
, 367
f
,
369
t
, 380
t
Sensation, 484,
487
.
See also
under
Sensory
Sense organs,
485
.
See also
Sensory
receptors
Sensible heat loss/perspiration, 163,
945
Sensible water loss,
995
Sensorineural deafness,
584
Sensory areas, 432, 434
f
, 435–436
Sensory (afferent) division of
peripheral nervous system,
387
, 388
f
Sensory endings, 151
f
, 153
f
primary,
514
, 514
f
secondary,
514
, 514
f
Sensory fibers
somatic, 387, 388
f
, 490
visceral, 387, 388
f
, 490
Sensory ganglia, cranial,
501
Sensory input,
387
, 387
f
integration of, 487–490, 488
f
Sensory integration, 487–490, 488
f
,
490
f
Sensory (afferent) nerves,
490
Sensory (afferent) neurons,
395
,
395
t
in reflex arc, 422, 422
f
, 513, 513
f
,
533, 533
f
somatic (SS),
468
, 468
f
visceral (VS),
468
, 468
f
Sensory (ascending) pathways/tracts,
468, 468–469, 469
f
, 470
f
, 471
t
Sensory receptors,
484
–487, 485–
486
t
.
See also
specific type
classification of
by location, 484–485
by stimulus type, 484
by structure/function,
485–487, 485–486
t
cutaneous, 151
f
, 152, 153
f
, 154,
163
peripheral,
484
–487, 485–486
t
in reflex arc, 422, 422
f
, 513, 513
f
,
533, 533
f
sensory integration at level of,
487, 487–488, 488
f
Secondary ossification centers,
184
,
184
f
Secondary sensory (flower spray)
endings,
514
, 514
f
Secondary sex characteristics
female, 1051, 1052
t
, 1058
male, 1034–1035, 1052
t
, 1058
Secondary spermatocytes,
1029
,
1031
f
Secondary structure of protein, 48, 49
f
Second-class lever,
324
, 325
f
Second-degree burns,
166
, 166
f
Second-degree heart block, 679
f
Second intention, healing by,
149
Second messengers,
81
, 82
f
, 419, 421,
593
in hormone mechanism of action,
593
–595, 594
f
Second-order neurons, in ascending
pathways,
469
, 470
f
Second polar body, 1044
f
,
1045
Second (expulsion) stage of labor,
1086
, 1086
f
Secretin, 622
t
, 868
t
,
872
, 877, 883–
884, 884
f
Secretion
glandular,
124
modes of, 124–125, 126
f
renal tubular, 963, 963
f
,
972
, 973
f
.
See also
Tubular secretion
Secretory IgA, 783
t
Secretory (postovulatory) phase of
uterine (menstrual) cycle,
1050
f
, 1051
Secretory region of neuron,
391
, 391
f
,
394
t
Secretory unit (acinus), of
multicellular exocrine gland,
124, 126
f
Secretory vesicles/granules, 77, 77
f
,
85, 85
f
, 86
f
, 87
f
Sectioning, tissue, for microscopy,
117
Sections (body), 14, 15
f
Segmental arteries,
957
, 958
f
Segmental (tertiary) bronchi,
810
, 811
f
Segmental level of motor control,
511
–512, 512
f
Segmentation (digestive), 851
f
,
852
,
885
t
,
886
, 886
t
, 890
Segregation (chromosome),
independent assortment and,
1097
–1098, 1097
f
Seizures, 452–453
Selective estrogen receptor
modulators, for osteoporosis,
193
Selective permeability,
68
.
See also
Membrane(s), permeability of;
Membrane transport
Selenium, 26
t
, 912, 915
t
Self-antigens,
774
, 786
autoimmune disease and, 794
development of tolerance to, 776,
776
f
MHC proteins and, 784
Self-propagating action potential,
404, 404
f
Self-tolerance,
776
, 776
f
.
See also
Self-
antigens
failure of, 794
Scala media (cochlear duct), 573,
573
f
, 574
f
,
575
, 576
t
, 577
f
Scala tympani, 574
f
,
575
, 577
f
Scala vestibuli, 574
f
,
575
, 577
f
Scalene muscles,
336
t
, 337
f
Scalp, muscles of, 329
f
, 329
t
, 331
f
Scanning electron microscopy (SEM),
118
Scaphoid, 232
f
, 233
t
,
234
Scapulae (shoulder blades), 200
f
, 227,
227
f
,
228
, 229
f
,
233
t
muscles controlling movement of,
346–348
t
, 347–349
f
Scapular nerve, dorsal, 504
f
, 505
t
Scapular spine,
228
, 229
f
Scar tissue,
142
, 143, 143
f
, 144
keloid,
149
Schleiden, Matthias, 62
Schwann, ±eodor, 62
Schwann cells (neurolemmocytes),
389
f
,
390
, 391
f
myelin sheaths formed by, 389
f
,
390, 392–393, 392
f
in PNS nerve fiber regeneration,
491, 492
f
Sciatica, 509
Sciatic nerve, 369
t
,
508
–509, 508
f
,
509
t
Sciatic notch
greater,
235
, 236
f
, 237
t
lesser,
235
, 236
f
Sclera, 545
f
, 548
f
,
549
, 550
f
Scleral venous sinus, 548
f
,
552
, 552
f
Scleroderma,
172
Scleroses, in multiple sclerosis, 405
Sclerotherapy,
750
Sclerotome,
1077
, 1078
f
, 1079
f
Scoliosis, 218, 219
f
, 244–245
Scotoma,
590
Scrotal septum, 1019, 1020
f
Scrotum, 620, 1019,
1019
–1020,
1019
f
, 1020
f
, 1022
f
embryologic/fetal development
of, 1055, 1057
f
Scurvy,
149
, 912
t
Sebaceous (oil) glands, 125, 126
f
,
151
f
,
161
–162, 161
f
, 167
Seborrhea, 162
Sebum,
162
Secondary active transport,
73
, 75
f
,
78
t
in tubular reabsorption of
nutrients/water/ions, 969, 970
f
in tubular reabsorption of
sodium, 969, 970
f
Secondary brain vesicles,
429
, 429
f
Secondary (lobar) bronchi,
810
, 811
f
Secondary capillary plexus,
599
, 601
f
Secondary curvatures,
244
Secondary follicle, 1036
f
, 1044
f
,
1045
,
1046
f
, 1050
f
late,
1045
, 1046
f
Secondary hypertension,
711
Secondary immune response, 778
f
,
779
, 779
f
, 780
Secondary lymphoid organs,
776
Secondary oocyte,
1044
–1045, 1044
f
,
1046
f
fertilization of, 1044
f
, 1045,
1065
1067, 1065
f
, 1068–1069
f
,
1070
f
.
See also
Fertilization
Sacrificial bonds, in bone, 183
Sacroiliac joint,
222
, 235, 235
f
, 255
t
Sacrospinalis (erector spinae)
muscles,
338
t
, 339
f
Sacrospinous ligament, 235
Sacrotuberous ligament, 235
Sacrum, 200
f
,
218
, 218
f
, 222–224,
224
f
, 235
f
, 237
t
Saddle joints, 258,
261
f
Sagittal plane/section,
14
, 15
f
Sagittal sinuses
inferior, 738–739
f
,
738
t
superior, 460
f
, 738–739
f
,
738
t
Sagittal suture, 201,
202
, 203
f
Saline, for volume restoration, 653
Saliva, 858, 885
t
in body defense, 770
t
, 859
composition of, 859
control of production of, 859
Salivary amylase, 51
t
, 859, 885
t
,
892
,
893
f
Salivary glands, 850
f
,
858
–859, 858
f
autonomic innervation/effects
and, 527
f
, 528
f
, 532
f
, 536
t
, 859
Salivation, control of, 859
Salivatory nuclei, 528,
859
Salpingitis,
1063
Salt(s), 32,
39
Salt (table).
See
Sodium chloride
Saltatory conduction,
405
, 406
f
Salt substitutes, potassium in, 1003
Salty taste, 569
Saphenous nerve, 507
f
Saphenous veins, great and small,
737
f
, 744
f
,
744
t
Sarco (prefix),
277
Sarcolemma, 277,
279
cardiac muscle, 672
f
skeletal muscle, 277,
279
, 280
f
,
283
t
smooth muscle, 306
Sarcoma,
149
.
See also
Cancer
Sarcomeres,
281
cardiac muscle, 671, 672
f
skeletal muscle,
280
f
,
281
, 282
f
,
283
t
, 285, 285
f
length-tension relationships
in, 301
f
,
302
, 302
f
Sarcopenia, 315
Sarcoplasm, 277,
279
Sarcoplasmic reticulum, 85,
284
, 311
t
in cardiac muscle, 311
t
, 671, 672
f
,
673
in skeletal muscle,
284
, 284
f
, 311
t
in smooth muscle, 306, 311
t
Sartorius muscle, 326
f
,
363
t
, 364
f
,
380
t
Satellite cells
muscle, 312, 312
f
neuroglia, 389
f
,
390
Satiety signals, food intake regulation
and, 939, 940
f
Saturated fats,
46
, 908
Saturation
of carrier proteins, 69
hemoglobin, 828–829, 830–831
f
,
832
f
altitude affecting, 839
“Saturday night paralysis,” 506
Scab, 142, 143
f
Scala(e),
573
–575
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