Index
I-47
Root
hair, 151
f
, 157, 158
f
of lung, 814
f
,
815
nail, 160, 160
f
nerve, brachial plexus, 504
f
,
505
,
505
t
of nose, 803, 803
f
of penis, 1022, 1023
f
of tongue, 857
of tooth,
860
–861, 860
f
Root canal, 860
f
,
861
Root canal therapy, 861
Root hair plexus (hair follicle
receptor), 151
f
,
157
, 163, 485
t
,
486
Rooting reflex, 899
Rootlets, spinal nerve, 465
f
,
501
, 502
f
Rosacea,
172
Rotation (body movement), 257
f
,
258
of lower limb, 380
t
, 381
f
of upper limb, 358
t
, 359
f
Rotational acceleration, crista
ampullaris response to, 581,
582
f
Rotator cuff,
264
, 265
f
muscles of, 350
t
, 351
f
Rotator muscles of thigh, lateral,
366–368
t
, 368
f
Rotor, ATP synthase, 923, 923
f
Rough endoplasmic reticulum, 63
f
,
83, 84,
84
, 84
f
, 86
f
, 87
f
, 94
t
protein processing in, 105, 108
f
Round ligament (ligamentum teres),
878
, 879
f
, 1080
f
,
1087
Round ligament of uterus, 1035
f
,
1037
f
,
1038
Round window, 571
f
,
572
, 577
f
rRNA.
See
Ribosomal RNA
Rubrospinal tract, 469
f
, 472
f
,
473
, 473
t
Ruffini endings (bulbous corpuscles),
486
t
,
487
Ruffled border, osteoclast, 181, 187
Rugae
of bladder, 980, 981
f
gastric,
865
, 865
f
Rule of eights (octet rule),
31
Rule of nines, 165, 165
f
Runner’s reflux, 863
Ruptured eardrum, 584
S.
See
Sulfur
Saccule,
573
, 573
f
, 576
t
, 580, 580
f
Sacral artery, median, 730
f
, 732
f
,
732
t
Sacral canal,
224
, 224
f
Sacral crests
lateral,
224
, 224
f
median,
224
, 224
f
Sacral curvature of spine,
218
, 218
f
,
244
Sacral foramina, anterior and
posterior,
224
, 224
f
Sacral hiatus,
224
, 224
f
Sacral nerves, 465
f
, 501, 501
f
Sacral part, of parasympathetic
nervous system, 528
f
, 529
Sacral plexus, 501
f
,
508
–509, 508
f
,
509
t
Sacral promontory,
222
–224, 224
f
,
235
f
Sacral splanchnic nerves,
531
, 532
f
Right common carotid artery, 724
f
,
724
t
, 726
f
, 728
f
Right common iliac artery, 724
f
,
724
t
,
732
t
, 733
f
Right coronary artery, 663
f
,
670
, 670
f
,
724
f
,
724
t
Right gastric artery, 730
f
, 731
f
,
731
t
Right gastroepiploic artery, 730
f
,
731
f
,
731
t
Right gastroepiploic vein, 743
f
Right hypochondriac region,
19
, 20
f
Right iliac (inguinal) region,
19
, 20
f
Right lobe, of liver, 878, 879
f
Right lower quadrant (RLQ),
19
, 19
f
Right lumbar region,
19
, 20
f
Right lymphatic duct, 753
f
,
754
Right main bronchus, 802
f
,
810
Right marginal artery, 663
f
,
670
, 670
f
Right pulmonary artery, 663–665
f
,
722
f
,
722
t
Right pulmonary vein, 663–665
f
,
722
f
, 722
t
Right subclavian artery, 724
f
,
724
t
,
726
f
, 728
f
, 729
f
Right suprarenal vein, 736
f
, 743
f
Right upper quadrant (RUQ),
19
, 19
f
Right ventricle, 659, 662, 663–665
f
,
668, 669
f
, 670
f
Rigor mortis, 292
f
, 293
Ringer’s solution, for volume
restoration, 653
Risorius muscle,
330
t
, 331
f
RNA (ribonucleic acid),
53
, 55, 55
t
,
102
in chromatin, 93, 93
f
digestion of, 893
f
, 895
intron DNA coding for, 105–106
messenger (mRNA), 55,
102
,
102
f
, 109
f
processing of, 102
f
, 103–104
in transcription, 102–104,
103
f
in translation, 105, 106–107
f
micro (miRNAs), 55, 104,
105
in protein synthesis, 102–105,
102
f
, 103
f
, 104
f
, 106–107
f
, 109
f
ribosomal (rRNA), 55, 83,
102
short interfering, 1102
short-lived, 102
single-stranded micro, 1102
small, 1102
transfer (tRNA), 55,
102
, 109
f
in translation, 104–105,
106–107
f
RNA polymerase,
103
, 103
f
RNA primers,
97
Rod(s), 55, 550
f
,
551
, 556–563, 558
f
.
See also
Photoreceptors
ATP synthase, 923, 923
f
cones compared with, 559, 559
t
electromagnetic spectrum and
sensitivities of, 554
f
light and dark adaptation and,
563
Rod discs, 558, 558
f
Rod inner segments, 557, 558
f
Rod outer segments, 557, 558
f
Rogaine.
See
Minoxidil
Roof
of nasal cavity, 213
of orbit, 213
development of, 429, 429
f
, 585
focusing light on, 554–556, 555
f
information/visual processing in,
561–562, 562
f
, 565
photoreceptors in.
See
Photoreceptors
Retinal (visual pigment),
559
Retinal artery, central, 548
f
, 550
f
,
551
, 551
f
Retinal detachment, 552
Retinal vein, central, 548
f
, 550
f
,
551
,
551
f
Retinitis pigmentosa, 563
Retinol.
See
Vitamin A
Retraction (body movement),
258
,
259
f
Retrograde amnesia, 458
Retrograde movement, 392
Retroperitoneal organs,
853
Retropulsion, 873
Retroverted uterus, 1038
Reuptake, neurotransmitter, 409
f
, 410
Reverberating circuits, 422
f
Reverse transcriptase, HIV and, 793
Reverse transcriptase inhibitors, for
HIV infection/AIDS, 793
R group, amino acid, 47, 48
f
Rh blood groups, 651–652
Rheumatic fever, 794
Rheumatism,
275
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA),
270
–272,
272
f
, 794
Rh factor,
651
Rhinencephalon,
436
Rhinitis, 806
Rhodopsin,
560
, 560
f
light and dark adaptation and, 563
RhoGAM, 652
Rhombencephalon (hindbrain),
429
,
429
f
Rhomboid major muscle, 327
f
,
348–349
f
,
348
t
Rhomboid minor muscle, 348–349
f
,
348
t
Rhomboid muscles, 327
f
,
346
t
,
348–349
f
,
348
t
Rhythm methods, of contraception,
1090
b
Rib(s), 200
f
, 225
f
,
226
, 226
f
Riboflavin (vitamin B
2
), 912
t
, 916
Ribonuclease, 893
f
Ribonucleic acid.
See
RNA
Ribose, 43, 44
f
in RNA, 55
Ribosomal RNA (rRNA), 55, 83,
102
Ribosomes, 63
f
,
83
–84, 83
f
, 84
f
, 94
t
in protein processing, 83, 84, 86
f
,
104–105, 106–107
f
, 108
f
Riboswitches,
105
RICE,
318
Rickets,
192
, 912
t
Right ascending lumbar vein,
740
t
,
742
f
Right atrium, 659, 662, 663–665
f
,
669
f
Right brachiocephalic vein, 736–737
f
,
736
t
Right bundle branch,
676
Right colic artery, 730
f
,
732
t
, 733
f
Right colic (hepatic) flexure,
887
,
888
f
gas transport and, 635, 716, 716
f
,
802
, 828–832, 830–831
f
, 832
f
,
833
f
homeostatic imbalances and,
839–841, 839
f
homeostatic relationships of, 5
f
,
843
b
integumentary system and, 168
b
,
843
b
lymphatic system/immunity and,
761
b
, 843
b
muscular system and, 314
b
, 843
b
nervous system and, 540
b
, 843
b
nonrespiratory air movements
and,
823
, 824
t
pregnancy and, 1083
reproductive system and, 843
b
,
1059
b
respiration control and, 834–838,
834
f
, 835
f
, 836
f
, 837
f
skeletal system and, 195
b
, 843
b
urinary system and, 843
b
, 1013
b
Respiratory volumes,
821
, 822
f
Respiratory zone,
803
, 811–812, 812
f
Respirometer,
941
Response to injury hypothesis, of
atherosclerosis, 700
b
Responsiveness (excitability),
5
muscle cell,
277
neuron, 5, 6
f
, 400.
See also
Nerve
impulse(s)
Restenoses, aFer angioplasty, 701
b
Resting heart rate, 684
Resting membrane potential,
79
–80,
79
f
,
397
, 397
f
,
398
f
in cardiac muscle cells, instability
of, 674
in neurons,
397
, 397
f
,
398
f
Resting state, of action potential,
400–401, 402–403
f
Resting (quiescent) zone (epiphyseal
plate), 185, 186
f
Restriction points, in cell cycle, 97
f
,
99
Restrictive pulmonary disorders,
pulmonary function testing
in, 823
Rete testis,
1020
, 1021
f
Reticular activating system (RAS),
450
–451
Reticular cells,
130
, 132
f
,
754
in bone marrow, 636
in lymphoid tissue,
754
, 755
f
Reticular connective tissue, 129
t
,
130
,
132
f
,
754
lymphoid tissue,
754
, 755
f
Reticular fibers,
127
, 128
f
, 130, 132
f
lymphoid tissue, 754, 755
f
Reticular formation, 445,
450
–451,
451
t
, 452
f
autonomic regulation by, 538,
538
f
Reticular lamina,
118
Reticular layer of dermis, 151
f
, 154
f
,
155
Reticulocyte(s),
636
, 636
f
Reticulocyte count,
636
Reticulospinal tracts, 451, 469
f
,
473
,
473
t
Reticulum, 636
Retina, 548
f
, 550
f
,
551
–552, 551
f
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