I-46
Index
Respiratory/lung alveoli, 805
t
,
811
,
812
f
, 813
f
developmental aspects of, 842
gas partial pressures in, 825, 825
t
Respiratory bronchioles,
811
, 812
f
,
813
f
Respiratory burst,
641
,
766
Respiratory capacities,
822
, 822
f
Respiratory cartilages, 174, 175
f
Respiratory centers
blood pH affecting, 1006
medullary, 447, 834, 834
f
, 835
f
respiratory rate/rhythm
affected by, 835–838, 835
f
,
836
f
, 1006
pontine,
834
–835, 834
f
Respiratory distress syndrome
adult (ARDS),
847
infant (IRDS),
821
Respiratory enzyme complexes,
922
,
922
f
Respiratory gases.
See also
under Gas
in plasma, 633
t
transport of, 635, 716, 716
f
,
802
,
828–832, 830–831
f
, 832
f
, 833
f
Respiratory membrane (blood air
barrier),
811
, 813
f
gas exchange at,
802
, 811, 813
f
,
825–827, 826
f
, 827
f
thickness/surface area of, 811,
825–826
Respiratory mucosa,
805
Respiratory pump, venous return
and,
704
, 704
f
, 705
f
, 709
f
Respiratory rate/depth
age affecting, 842
alveolar ventilation and, 823, 823
t
factors affecting, 835–838, 835
f
,
836
f
, 837
f
normal (eupnea),
834
Respiratory rhythm
generation of, 835
normal (eupnea),
834
Respiratory system, 5
f
, 7
f
, 801–848,
802
, 802
f
, 805
t
.
See also
specific organ or structure and
under Pulmonary
in acid-base balance, 832, 836,
836
f
, 837, 1006
compensations for
abnormalities and, 832,
837, 1011–1012,
1011
adjustments and, 838–839
autonomic nervous system and,
540
b
, 843
b
in body defense, 766
breathing mechanics and,
816–823, 817
f
, 818
f
, 819
f
, 820
f
,
823
f
, 823
t
cardiovascular system and, 746
b
,
843
b
case study and, 848
b
developmental aspects of, 841–
844, 842
f
digestive system and, 843
b
, 900
b
endocrine system and, 626
b
, 843
b
functional anatomy of, 802–816,
802
f
, 805
t
functions of, 6–7, 7
f
gas exchange and,
802
, 811, 813
f
,
824–828, 825
t
, 826
f
, 827
f
in females, 1035, 1035
f
in males, 1019, 1019
f
, 1023
f
,
1024
Reproductive system,
1018
–1063.
See also
Female reproductive
system; Male reproductive
system
accessory organs of,
1018
autonomic nervous system and,
540
b
, 1059
b
cardiovascular system and, 746
b
,
1059
b
case study and, 1063
b
developmental aspects of,
1054–1058, 1056
f
, 1057
f
digestive system and, 900
b
, 1059
b
endocrine system and, 626
b
, 1059
b
homeostatic relationships of,
1059
b
integumentary system and, 168
b
,
1059
b
lymphatic system/immunity and,
761
b
, 1059
b
muscular system and, 314
b
, 1059
b
respiratory system and, 843
b
,
1059
b
sexually transmitted infections
and,
1053
–1054
skeletal system and, 195
b
, 1059
b
thyroid hormone affecting, 607,
607
t
urinary system and, 1013
b
, 1059
b
Residual volume,
821
, 822
f
Resistance (airway), 820, 820
f
asthma and, 820, 840
Resistance (electrical),
396
Resistance (vascular/peripheral),
702
,
704, 705–707, 705
f
, 706
f
, 709
f
Resistance exercise,
305
.
See also
Exercise
Resistin, 621, 622
t
, 625
b
Resolution phase of sexual response,
in male,
1027
Resonance, 577
f
, 578
Resorption, bone, 181, 192
Resorption bay, 181
Respiration,
802
.
See also
Breathing
cellular, 5, 83, 299, 802,
913
, 914,
914
f
, 929
t
ATP for muscle activity and,
299
–300, 299
f
, 300
f
, 311
t
redox reactions in, 37
control of, 834–838, 834
f
, 835
f
,
836
f
, 837
f
external,
802
, 825–827, 826
f
, 827
f
gas exchange and, 811, 813
f
,
824–828, 825
t
, 826
f
, 827
f
gas transport and, 635, 716, 716
f
,
802
, 828–832, 830–831
f
, 832
f
,
833
f
internal,
802
, 827–828
muscles of, 340
t
, 341
f
, 818
f
, 819
neural control of, 834–835, 834
f
,
835
f
Respiratory acidosis
(hypoventilation),
839
, 1006,
1009
, 1010
t
, 1011
b
renal compensations and, 1012
Respiratory alkalosis
(hyperventilation),
836
, 1006,
1009
, 1010
t
, 1011
b
renal compensation and, 1012
REM sleep.
See
Rapid eye movement
(REM) sleep
Renal anemia, 639
Renal arteries, 725
f
, 730
f
, 732
f
,
732
t
,
955
f
,
957
, 958
f
Renal autoregulation,
966
–967, 967
f
Renal calculi,
979
–980
Renal calyces (major and minor),
956
, 957
f
Renal clearance,
978
Renal columns,
956
, 957
f
Renal corpuscle,
958
–960, 959
f
, 960
f
,
961
f
Renal cortex,
956
, 957
f
, 959
f
Renal failure,
978
Renal fascia,
955
, 956
f
Renal hilum,
955
, 955
f
Renal infarct,
989
Renal medulla,
956
, 957
f
, 959
f
Renal pelvis,
956
, 957
f
, 979
f
Renal physiology,
2
, 963–977, 963
f
.
See also
Urine, formation of
Renal plexus,
957
–958
Renal ptosis, 955
Renal (medullary) pyramids,
956
, 957
f
Renal sinus,
955
Renal tubular acidosis,
1017
Renal tubules, 959
f
,
960
, 960
f
reabsorption in, 963, 963
f
,
968
972, 969
f
, 970
f
, 971
t
, 973
f
.
See
also
Tubular reabsorption
secretion by, 963, 963
f
,
972
, 973
f
.
See also
Tubular secretion
Renal veins, 736–737
f
, 742–743
f
,
742
t
, 955
f
,
957
, 958
f
Renin, 613
f
,
614
,
621
–623, 955,
968
blood pressure and, 707, 708
f
,
709
,
968
, 999, 1001
f
, 1002
f
granular cells secreting, 963, 968
in sodium regulation, 999, 1001
f
,
1002
f
sympathetic nervous system and,
537
Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone
mechanism, 613–614, 613
f
,
708
f
,
709
, 967
f
,
968
, 999–
1000, 999
t
, 1000
f
, 1002
f
sympathetic nervous system and,
537
Rennin,
870
,
894
Repair
bone fracture, 191–192, 191
f
tissue, 142–144, 143
f
, 768
f
, 769
first/second intention,
149
Replication bubble, 97
Replication fork, 97, 98
f
Repolarization
cardiac muscle, 673, 673
f
, 674
f
, 675
ECG and, 677–678, 677
f
, 678
f
neuron, action potential and, 400,
401
, 402–403
f
, 412
t
skeletal muscle, 288–289, 288
f
,
289
f
Repressor genes, in cell division
control, 99
Reproduction, 6
f
,
7
–8, 7
f
cellular, 7
Reproductive cloning, 1089
Reproductive duct system
embryologic/fetal development
of, 1056
f
Redox (oxidation-reduction)
reactions,
36
–37,
916
Red pulp, 757
f
,
758
Reduced hemoglobin
(deoxyhemoglobin),
635
,
828
Reduced reactant, in redox reaction,
36
Reduction, fracture, 191
Reduction division (meiosis I), 1028
f
,
1029
, 1030
f
, 1031
f
, 1044
f
Reference man/woman, 2
Referred pain,
490
, 490
f
Reflection (light), 554
Reflex(es),
422
, 422
f
, 513–519, 513
f
spinal,
513
–519.
See also
specific
type
testing, 474
Reflex arcs,
422
, 422
f
, 511, 513, 513
f
visceral,
533
, 533
f
Reflex (cephalic) phase, of gastric
secretion,
870
, 871
f
Refraction (light),
554
, 554
f
, 555
f
visual disorders related to, 556,
557
f
Refractory periods
muscle fiber,
289
in cardiac muscle, 671–672,
673
f
neuron, 404–405, 405
f
a±er orgasm, 1027
Regeneration, 142–143,
142
, 143
f
,
144
cardiac tissue, 144
epithelial tissue, 119, 142–143,
143
f
liver, 881
nerve fiber/axon, 491–492, 492
f
neuronal, 144
Regeneration tube, 491, 492
f
Regional anatomy,
2
Regional terms in anatomy,
13
, 13
f
Regular dense connective tissue, 129
t
,
130
–132, 133
f
Regulatory functions of blood,
632–633
Regulatory T cells, 758, 784, 785
f
,
789
, 792
t
autoimmune reactions inhibited
by, 789, 794
Rejection (transplant), prevention of,
790–792
Relative intensity/relative timing
(sound wave), 579
Relative refractory period,
405
, 405
f
Relaxation
skeletal muscle fiber, 293–294,
295
f
smooth muscle, 307
stomach muscle, receptive,
873
Relaxin,
1082
placental production of, 1074,
1082
in semen, 1026
Relay(s), in neuronal pathways, 468
Relay proteins, 595
Release factor, 105, 107
f
Releasing hormones, hypothalamic,
442,
599
Remodeling (bone).
See
Bone
remodeling
Remodeling units, 187
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