Index
I-45
Real image,
554
, 555
f
Receptive endings, 393, 394
t
Receptive field, 488
Receptive regions,
391
, 391
f
, 394
t
Receptive relaxation, of stomach
muscles,
873
Receptor(s).
See also
specific type
in homeostasis,
9
, 9
f
in hormone mechanism of action,
593–595, 594
f
, 596
f
membrane, 65,
81
, 82
f
phasic,
488
in reflex arc, 422, 422
f
, 513, 513
f
,
533, 533
f
tonic,
488
up- and down-regulation of,
595
Receptor binding, in chemical
signaling, 81, 82
f
Receptor cells, in special senses, 544
Receptor-mediated endocytosis,
76
,
77
f
, 78
t
Receptor membrane, gustatory
epithelial cell (gustatory hair),
568
, 568
f
Receptor potential, 399,
488
Receptor proteins, catalytic, 81
Receptor region, neurotransmitter,
407
Recessive allele,
1096
–1097, 1100,
1100
t
Recessive traits, 1100, 1100
t
Reciprocal activation,
517
Reciprocal inhibition,
515
Recoil (lung)
in expiration, 818
f
, 819
intrapleural pressure and, 817
Recombinant chromosomes,
1098
,
1098
f
Recombination
gene, 1098, 1098
f
somatic,
513
antigen receptor diversity
and, 777
Recovery stroke, of cilia, 90, 91
f
Recruitment (multiple motor unit
summation),
296
, 296
f
, 304
Rectal artery, superior, 730
f
,
732
t
,
733
f
Rectal examination,
887
Rectal valves,
887
, 888
f
Rectouterine pouch, 1035
f
, 1038
Rectum, 850
f
,
887
, 888
f
.
See also
under Rectal
autonomic innervation/effects
and, 528
f
, 532
f
Rectus abdominis muscles, 326
f
,
342
t
, 343
f
Rectus femoris muscle, 326
f
,
363
t
,
364
f
,
365
t
, 380
t
, 381
f
Rectus muscles, of eye, 547, 547
f
Rectus sheath, 342
t
Red blood cells, 129
t
, 137
f
, 632, 632
f
,
634
–640, 634
f
, 641
f
, 644
t
.
See
also
Erythrocytes
Red cones, 554
f
, 559
Red marrow,
179
,
636
hematopoiesis in, 177,
636
, 654
in intramembranous ossification,
185
f
Red marrow cavities,
179
Redness, in inflammation, 767, 768
f
Red nucleus,
445
Quanta,
553
Quaternary structure of protein,
49
f
, 50
Quick (hyponychium), of nail,
160
,
160
f
Quiescent period, cardiac cycle,
681
Quiescent (resting) zone (epiphyseal
plate), 185, 186
f
Rabies,
427
Radial artery, 725
f
, 728
f
,
728
t
, 729
f
pulse at, 710, 710
f
of uterus,
1039
, 1039
f
Radial collateral ligament, 266, 266
f
Radial fossa,
230
, 230
f
Radial groove,
230
, 230
f
Radial nerve, 356
t
, 504
f
, 505
t
,
506
Radial notch, 230
f
, 231
f
,
232
Radial pulse, 710, 710
f
Radial tuberosity, 230
f
, 231
f
,
232
Radial vein, 737
f
, 740–741
f
,
740
t
Radiant (electromagnetic) energy,
24
Radiate arteries, cortical,
957
, 958
f
,
961
f
, 962
Radiate veins, cortical,
957
, 958
f
, 961
f
Radiation
heat loss by,
945
, 945
f
ionizing, 28,
60
ultraviolet.
See
Ultraviolet
radiation
Radiation sickness,
60
Radiation therapy, for cancer, 146
b
Radical mastectomy,
1043
Radioactivity, 28
Radiographic anatomy, 2
Radiographs, 16
b
Radioisotopes,
28
in positron-emission tomography,
16
b
, 28
Radioulnar joints,
231
, 231
f
, 254
t
distal, 231
f
, 254
t
proximal, 231
f
, 254
t
Radius, 200
f
, 230
f
, 231
f
,
232
,
233
t
Colles’ fracture of, 232
Ramus/rami (bone marking), 180
t
of ischium,
235
, 236
f
of mandible, 204
f
, 211, 211
f
of pubis,
235
, 236
f
Ramus/rami (nerve)
communicantes, 502
f
,
503
,
529
,
529
t
, 530
f
, 531, 532
f
dorsal, 502
f
,
503
ventral, 502
f
,
503
Random fertilization, 1098–1099
Range of motion, 254–255
t
, 256
Ranvier, nodes of (myelin sheath
gaps), 391
f
,
393
Raphe nuclei,
450
Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep,
454
, 454
f
Raynaud’s disease, 172, 539
RBCs (red blood cells).
See
Erythrocytes
Reabsorption, 717
tubular, 963, 963
f
,
968
–972,
969
f
, 970
f
, 971
t
, 973
f
.
See also
Tubular reabsorption
Reactant(s), in chemical reaction,
35
water as, 38
Reactive hyperemia,
713
Reactivity, of antigens,
774
Pulp
dental,
861
splenic, 757
f
,
758
Pulp cavity, 860
f
,
861
Pulse (arterial), 703,
710
monitoring, 710, 710
f
Pulse pressure,
703
Puncta, lacrimal,
546
, 546
f
Punnett square,
1099
, 1099
f
Pupil, 545
f
, 548
f
,
549
constriction/dilation of, 549–551,
549
f
in close vision, 549, 556
light/dark adaptation and,
549, 563
Pupillary light reflex, 549, 563
Purines, 53, 416
t
, 417
Purkinje cells,
447
Purkinje fibers (subendocardial
conducting network), 675
f
,
676
Pus,
149
,
771
in urine, 980
t
Putamen, 438
f
,
439
, 439
f
P wave,
677
, 677
f
, 678
f
Pyelitis, 956, 982
Pyelogram, 979
f
,
988
Pyelonephritis, 956–957, 982
Pyloric antrum, 865
f
,
866
Pyloric canal, 865
f
,
866
Pyloric part of stomach,
866
gastric contractile activity and,
873, 873
f
Pyloric stenosis,
905
Pyloric valve/sphincter, 865
f
,
866
Pylorus, 865
f
,
866
Pyramidal cells, in primary motor
cortex,
433
Pyramidal (direct) pathways, 469,
471, 472
f
, 473
t
, 512
Pyramidal process, 212
Pyramidal (corticospinal) tracts, 433,
469
f
,
471
, 472
f
, 473
t
Pyramids
medulla oblongata, 444
f
,
445
renal (medullary),
956
, 957
f
Pyridoxine (vitamin B
6
), 912
t
Pyrimidines, 53
Pyrogens,
773
, 947
Pyruvic acid, 299, 299
f
, 914, 914
f
,
917
f
, 918, 918
f
,
919
, 924
f
Pyuria, 980
t
QRS complex,
677
, 677
f
, 678
f
Q-T interval, 677
f
,
678
Quadrants, abdominopelvic, 19, 19
f
Quadrate lobe, of liver, 878, 879
f
Quadratus femoris muscle, 368
f
,
368
t
, 380
t
Quadratus lumborum muscle,
338
t
,
339
f
Quadratus plantae (flexor
accessorius) muscle,
376
t
, 377
f
Quadriceps femoris muscle,
363
t
,
364
f
,
365
–366
t
tendon of, 262–263
f
, 264, 364
f
Quadriceps strain,
384
Quadriplegia,
474
Qualities,
489
sound,
576
Quality discrimination,
489
ptc
(patched) gene, UV radiation
affecting, 164
Pterygoid muscles,
332
t
, 333
f
Pterygoid processes, 205
f
,
209
–210,
209
f
, 214
f
Pterygopalatine ganglia, 497
t
,
528
,
528
f
PTH.
See
Parathyroid hormone
Ptosis, 495
t
renal, 955
Puberty, 1057–
1058
in females, 1058
leptin and, 1047, 1051
oogenesis aFer, 1044–1045,
1044
f
secondary sex characteristics
and, 1051, 1052
t
, 1058
in males, 1034, 1034
f
, 1058
secondary sex characteristics
and, 1034–1035, 1052
t
,
1058
Pubic arch,
235
, 235
f
, 237
t
Pubic bone (pubis),
235
, 235
f
, 236
f
Pubic crest,
235
, 235
f
Pubic rami, superior and inferior,
235
, 236
f
Pubic (hypogastric) region,
19
, 20
f
Pubic symphysis,
235
, 235
f
, 251
f
,
252, 255
t
Pubic tubercle,
235
, 235
f
, 236
f
Pubis (pubic bone),
235
, 235
f
, 236
f
Pubofemoral ligament,
267
, 267
f
Pudendal artery, internal, 734
f
,
734
t
,
1027
Pudendal nerve, 508
f
,
509
, 509
t
Pudendum (external genitalia),
1035
,
1035
f
, 1040
f
,
1041
embryologic/fetal development
of, 1055, 1057
f
Pulmonary arteries, 663–665
f
, 722
f
,
722
–723
t
, 814
f
,
815
Pulmonary capillaries, 669
f
, 722
f
,
722
t
, 813
f
,
815
in respiratory membrane, 811, 813
f
oxygenation of blood in, 826,
826
t
Pulmonary circuit/circulation,
659
,
659
f
, 668, 669
f
, 715, 721, 722
f
,
722
–723
t
, 815–816
blood volume in, 699
f
, 816
Pulmonary congestion, in heart
failure,
685
Pulmonary embolism, 650,
848
Pulmonary function tests, 823
Pulmonary gas exchange (external
respiration),
802
, 825–827,
826
f
, 827
f
Pulmonary irritant reflexes, 835
f
, 838
Pulmonary (visceral) pleura, 18, 141
f
,
814
f
,
816
Pulmonary plexus,
528
, 532
f
,
816
Pulmonary trunk,
662
, 663
f
, 665
f
,
669
f
, 722
f
,
722
t
Pulmonary valve (pulmonary
semilunar valve), 665
f
, 666
f
,
667
Pulmonary veins,
662
, 663–665
f
,
669
f
, 722
f
,
722
–723
t
, 814
f
,
816
Pulmonary ventilation (breathing),
802
,
816
, 817–820, 818
f
, 819
f
.
See also
Breathing; Respiration
physical factors influencing,
820–821, 820
f
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