I-44
Index
Protein-coated pits, 73, 75, 76–77,
76
f
, 78
t
Protein hormones, 50, 51
t
Protein kinases, 81,
594
, 594
f
Protein release factor, 105, 107
f
Protein synthesis, 99–105, 102
f
, 103
f
,
104
f
, 106–107
f
, 108
f
, 109
f
, 929
DNA in, 53, 99, 102
f
, 103
f
, 105,
106–107
f
, 109
f
in ribosomes, 83, 84, 86
f
, 104–
105, 106–107
f
, 108
f
RNA in, 102–105, 102
f
, 103
f
, 104
f
,
105, 106–107
f
, 109
f
transcription, 102,
102
–104, 102
f
,
103
f
, 109
f
translation, 102, 102
f
,
104
–105,
104
f
, 106–107
f
, 108
f
, 109
f
Proteinuria, 980
t
Proteoglycans, 127
Proteolysis, 110
Proteome, 47.
See also
Protein(s)
Prothrombin, 647
t
,
648
, 648
f
Prothrombin activator,
648
, 648
f
pathways to, 647–648, 648
f
Prothrombin time,
654
Proton(s),
25
, 25
f
, 27
f
in bone resorption, 187
Proton acceptors,
39
bases as,
39
, 1004
amino acid, 47
Proton donors,
39
acids as,
39
, 1004
amino acid, 47
Proton (H
1
) gradient, 921
f
,
922
Proton therapy, in cancer treatment,
146
b
Proto-oncogenes,
145
b
Protraction (body movement),
258
,
259
f
Provirus, HIV, 793
Provitamin D
3
(cholecalciferol), 622
t
,
623
Provitamins, 911
Proximal (term), 12
t
Proximal convoluted tubule, 959
f
,
960
, 960
f
, 961
f
glutamine metabolism in,
ammonium ion excretion and,
1008, 1009
f
hydrogen secretion in, in acid
base balance, 1007, 1007
f
reabsorption in, 968–970, 969
f
reabsorptive capability of, 970–
971, 971
t
Proximal phalanx
finger, 232
f
, 233
t
, 234
toe, 241
f
, 243
t
Proximal radioulnar joint, 231
f
, 254
t
Pseudogenes, 102
Pseudohermaphrodites, 1055
Pseudopods, 767
f
Pseudostratified columnar
epithelium,
120–122
, 122
f
Pseudounipolar neurons,
393
,
394–395
t
P site, 105, 106
f
, 107
f
Psoas major muscle,
363
t
, 364
f
Psoriasis,
171
–172
Psychoneuroimmunology, 796
Psychoses,
482
Psychosocial dwarfism,
630
Psychosomatic illness,
449
Prostaglandin E
2
, in glomerular
filtration rate regulation, 968
Prostate cancer, 1025–1026
Prostate gland, 1019, 1019
f
, 1023
f
,
1025
, 1056
f
disorders of, 1025–1026
Prostate-specific antigen (PSA), 1025
Prostatic hyperplasia, benign (BPH),
1025
Prostatic secretion, 1025
Prostatic urethra,
981
, 981
f
, 1019
f
,
1023
f
, 1024
Prostatitis,
1025
Prostheses (artificial joints), 271
b
Protease(s)
in mast cells, 128
pancreatic, 883, 883
f
, 894
f
, 895
Protease inhibitors, for AIDS, 793
Proteasomes,
110
Protective function
of blood, 633
of bones, 176
of skin, 5, 5
f
, 6
f
, 162–163, 764,
765–766, 765
f
, 770
t
of water, 38–39
Protein(s), 8,
47
–53, 909
t
, 910–911,
911
f
.
See also
specific type
absorption of, 893
f
, 894
f
, 896
amino acids/peptide bonds and,
47, 48
f
complete, 909
t
,
910
contractile, 50, 51
t
cytosolic, degradation of, 109–110
denaturation of,
50
dietary, 894, 909
t
, 910–911, 911
f
digestion of, 869–870, 893
f
,
894–895, 894
f
enzymes/enzyme activity and, 50,
51
–53, 51
t
, 52
f
, 53
f
fibrous (structural),
50
, 51
t
globular (functional), 49
f
,
50
, 51
t
as glucose source, 933, 934
f
heat shock, 51
incomplete, 909
t
, 910
interconversion of, 930–931, 930
f
membrane, 64
f
, 65.
See also
Membrane proteins
metabolism of, 914
f
, 928–930,
928
f
, 929
t
liver in, 928
f
, 929, 937
t
in postabsorptive state, 933,
934
f
, 935
thyroid hormone affecting,
607
t
molecular chaperones,
50
–51, 51
t
plasma, 51
t
, 633, 633
t
stress, 51
structural levels of, 48–50, 49
f
synthesis of, 99–105, 102
f
, 103
f
,
104
f
, 106–107
f
, 108
f
, 109
f
, 929.
See also
Protein synthesis
transport, 65, 66
f
in urine, 980
t
Protein anions, in plasma/interstitial
fluid/intracellular fluid, 992,
992
f
Protein buffer system,
1005
–1006
Protein C,
649
Protein-calorie malnutrition, 953
Protein channels, 65,
69
, 396–397,
396
f
.
See also specific type and
Channels
Proerythroblasts,
636
, 636
f
Progesterone,
620
,
1000
,
1035
, 1051,
1052
t
in ovarian cycle, 1048
f
, 1049, 1052
t
placental/during pregnancy,
1072
f
, 1073–1074
in sodium regulation,
1000
in uterine (menstrual) cycle, 1049,
1050
f
, 1051, 1052
t
Progestins, for contraception, 1090
b
,
1091
b
Programmed cell death.
See
Apoptosis
Prohormone, 605
Proinsulin,
618
Projection,
489
Projection fibers,
437
, 438
f
Projection level of motor control,
512
, 512
f
Prolactin (PRL), 601
f
, 603
t
,
605
–606,
1088
lactation and, 603
t
, 605, 606,
1088
–1089, 1088
f
Prolactin cells,
605
Prolactin-inhibiting hormone (PIH),
601
f
, 603
t
,
606
Prolactinoma,
630
Prolactin-releasing factors, 606
lactation and, 1088, 1088
f
Prolapsed (herniated/slipped) disc,
219
–220, 220
f
, 245
Prolapse of uterus,
1038
Proliferation (growth) zone
(epiphyseal plate), 185, 186
f
Proliferative (preovulatory) phase
of uterine (menstrual) cycle,
1049, 1050
f
Promonocytes, 643
f
,
644
Promoter,
102
, 103
f
Promyelocytes,
642
, 643
f
Pronation (body movement),
258
, 259
f
of upper limb, 358
t
, 359
f
Pronator quadratus muscle,
354
t
,
355
f
,
356
t
, 358
t
Pronator teres muscle, 326
f
,
354
t
,
355
f
, 358
t
, 359
f
Pronephric duct,
983
, 984
f
Pronephros,
983
, 984
f
Pronuclei, male and female,
1066
1067, 1070
f
Pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC), 605
in food intake regulation, 939,
940
f
Propagation of action potential
in muscle fiber contraction, 286–
289, 286
f
, 287
f
, 288
f
, 289
f
in neuron,
404
, 404
f
, 407
Propecia.
See
Finasteride
Prophase
in meiosis, 1028
f
, 1029, 1030
f
in mitosis, 97
f
,
98
, 100
f
, 1028
f
Proprioception, conscious, 469
Proprioceptors,
485
, 486
t
Propulsion (food),
851
, 851
f
, 885
t
.
See also
Peristalsis
Prosencephalon (forebrain),
429
, 429
f
Prostacyclin,
646
Prostaglandin(s), 46
t
, 47, 593,
767
,
770
t
, 908,
1085
in inflammation,
767
, 768
f
, 770
t
labor and, 1085
in semen/seminal fluid, 1025, 1026
Prevertebral (collateral) ganglia, 530
f
,
531
pathways with synapses in, 530
f
,
531–533, 532
f
Prickle cells, 152
Primary active transport,
73
, 74
f
,
75
f
, 78
t
in tubular reabsorption of
sodium, 969, 970
f
Primary auditory cortex, 434
f
,
436
,
579
, 579
f
Primary brain vesicles,
429
, 429
f
Primary (main) bronchi, 802
f
,
810
,
811
f
Primary capillary plexus,
599
, 601
f
Primary cilia, 91
Primary curvatures,
244
, 245
f
Primary dentition (deciduous teeth),
859
, 860
f
Primary follicle, 1036
f
, 1043, 1044
f
,
1045, 1046
f
, 1050
f
Primary germ layers,
144
, 144
f
, 1073
f
Primary (essential) hypertension,
711
Primary immune response, 778
f
,
779
,
779
f
, 780
Primary lymphoid organs,
776
Primary (somatic) motor cortex,
433
,
434
f
, 435, 435
f
Primary olfactory (smell) cortex,
434
f
,
436
, 567
Primary oocytes,
1043
, 1044
f
, 1046
f
Primary ossification centers,
183
,
184
f
Primary sensory (anulospiral)
endings,
514
, 514
f
Primary sex organs,
1018
.
See also
Gonad(s); Ovaries; Testes
Primary somatosensory cortex, 434
f
,
435
–436, 435
f
Primary spermatocyte,
1029
, 1031
f
Primary structure of protein, 48, 49
f
Primary transcript (pre-mRNA),
102
f
, 103–104, 106
f
Primary visual (striate) cortex, 434
f
,
436
,
563
, 564
f
, 565
Primase, 97
Prime mover,
320
Primitive gut,
898
, 899
f
, 1076
f
,
1077
Primitive streak, 1075
f
,
1076
Primitive tissues, 1076
Primordial follicles, 1036,
1043
,
1044
f
, 1045, 1046
f
Primordial germ cells,
1055
Principal cells, 959
f
, 960
Principle of complementarity of
structure and function,
3
, 62,
634
P-R interval, 677
f
,
678
Prion protein, in Alzheimer’s disease,
463–464
Proaccelerin, 647
t
Procarboxypeptidase, 883, 883
f
Procedural (skills) memory,
457
, 457
f
Process (bone marking), 180
t
Processes (neuron), 140, 140
f
,
390
393, 391
f
Procoagulants (clotting factors), 646,
647
, 647
t
Proconvertin, 647
t
Proctodeum,
898
, 899
f
Proctology,
905
Product(s), in chemical reaction,
35
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