Index
I-43
Precapillary sphincter, 695
f
,
698
, 698
f
Precentral gyrus,
431
, 432
f
, 435
f
Precipitation, by antibodies,
782
,
782
f
Precommand level of motor control,
512
–513, 512
f
Preeclampsia,
1085
Prefrontal cortex (anterior
association area), 434
f
,
437
in memory, 434
f
, 437, 457
f
, 458
Preganglionic axons,
525
, 526
f
, 528
Preganglionic fibers
parasympathetic, 528, 528
f
, 529
t
sympathetic, 529, 529
t
, 531, 532
f
Preganglionic neurons,
525
, 526
f
, 529
development of, 539
Pregnancy,
1065
, 1082–1085, 1082
f
case study and, 1094
b
ectopic, 1038,
1094
metabolic/hormonal changes
during, 1072
f
, 1073–1074,
1083
nutrition during, 948, 1083
parturition (birth) and,
1085
1087, 1085
f
, 1086
f
prevention of (contraception),
1090–1091
b
Rh incompatibility and, 652
Pregnancy tests, hCG-based, 1071,
1072
f
Prehypertension, 710
Preload,
682
, 682
f
Premature birth, infant respiratory
distress syndrome and, 821
Premature contraction (extrasystole),
676
Premolars (bicuspids),
860
, 860
f
Premotor cortex,
433
, 434
f
, 435
Pre-mRNA, 102
f
, 103–104, 106
f
Prenatal testing, 1103–1104, 1104
f
Preoptic nucleus, 442
f
, 454
in temperature regulation, 945
Preovulatory (proliferative) phase
of uterine (menstrual) cycle,
1049, 1050
f
Prepatellar bursa, subcutaneous, 262
f
,
263, 270
Prepotentials (pacemaker potentials),
674
, 674
f
Prepuce
of clitoris, 1040
f
,
1041
of penis (foreskin), 1019
f
,
1022
,
1023
f
Presbycusis,
585
Presbyopia,
556
, 585
Pressure gradient (blood pressure),
702
Pressure gradient (breathing), 819,
820, 820
f
Pressure points,
710
, 710
f
Pressure receptors
bulbous corpuscles (Ruffini
endings), 486
t
,
487
lamellar (Pacinian) corpuscles,
151
f
, 154, 163, 486
t
,
487
Pressure–volume relationships,
pulmonary ventilation and,
817
Prestriate cortices,
565
Presynaptic inhibition,
414
Presynaptic neuron,
407
, 409
f
Pretectal nuclei,
564
, 564
f
Posterior sacral foramina,
224
, 224
f
Posterior scalene muscle, 336
t
, 337
f
Posterior segment of eye, 548
f
, 549,
552
, 552
f
Posterior semicircular canal, 573,
573
f
Posterior superior iliac spine,
234
,
236
f
Posterior tibial artery, 725
f
, 734–735
f
,
735
t
pulse at, 710
f
Posterior tibial vein, 737
f
, 744
f
,
744
t
Posterior vagal trunk,
529
Postganglionic axons,
525
, 526
f
Postganglionic fibers
parasympathetic, 528, 528
f
, 529
t
sympathetic, 529
t
, 531, 532
f
Postganglionic neurons,
525
, 526
f
Postovulatory (secretory) phase of
uterine (menstrual) cycle,
1050
f
, 1051
Postpartum bleeding, 1087
Postpolio syndrome,
474
Postsynaptic neuron,
407
, 409
f
summation by,
411
–413, 411
f
,
412
t
Postsynaptic potentials, 399, 410–
414, 410
f
, 411
f
, 413
t
information processing in retina
and, 561–562, 562
f
Posture, skeletal muscles in
maintenance of, 277
Potassium, 26
t
, 915
t
absorption of, 897–898
acid-base balance and, 1001
aldosterone and, 613
f
, 614, 999,
1000
f
, 1003
balance/imbalance of, 998
t
,
1000–1003, 1012
dietary, 915
t
heart function and, 684, 1001
in plasma/interstitial fluid/
intracellular fluid, 992–993,
992
f
plasma levels of, renal secretion
and, 1003
resting membrane potential and,
79–80, 79
f
, 397, 398
f
in salt substitutes, 1003
in sodium regulation, 999, 1000
f
tubular reabsorption of, 970
f
,
973
f
, 1002–1003
tubular secretion of, 972, 973
f
,
1003
Potassium channels, 396
f
action potential and, 400–401,
402–403
f
muscle contraction and, 287
f
, 288,
288
f
, 289, 289
f
Potential/potential difference,
396
Potential energy,
24
Potentiation, synaptic,
413
–414
Pott’s fracture, 240
f
, 241
Power lever, 323, 323
f
Power stroke, of cilia, 90, 91
f
P
pul
.
See
Intrapulmonary pressure
P-Q interval,
678
Prader-Willi syndrome, 1103
Prealbumin, 49
f
, 50
Preantral follicles, 1047
Preantral phase, of ovarian cycle,
1045, 1046
f
Positron emission tomography
(PET),
16
b
, 17
f
, 28, 474
Postabsorptive (fasting) state, 931,
933–935, 934
f
Postcapillary venules, 695
f
,
698
, 698
f
Postcentral gyrus,
431
, 432
f
, 435, 435
f
Postcoital contraception, 1090
b
,
1091
b
Posterior (term), 12
t
Posterior arch, 221, 221
f
Posterior association area,
437
Posterior auricular vein, 738–739
f
Posterior cerebral arteries, 726
f
, 727
f
,
727
t
Posterior chamber,
552
, 552
f
Posterior circumflex humeral artery,
728
f
,
728
t
, 729
f
Posterior commissure,
437
, 440
f
, 442
Posterior communicating arteries,
726
f
, 727
f
,
727
t
Posterior cords, brachial plexus, 504
f
,
505
, 505
t
Posterior cranial fossa, 201, 201
f
,
202
,
207
f
Posterior cruciate ligament, 262–263
f
,
264
Posterior division, brachial plexus,
504
f
,
505
Posterior extensor compartment, of
forearm, 351–352
f
, 353
t
, 354
t
,
356–357
t
, 357
f
, 358
t
, 359
f
Posterior femoral cutaneous nerve,
508
f
, 509
t
Posterior flexor compartment, of leg,
muscles of, 370
t
Posterior fontanelle, 244
f
Posterior forearm muscles, 351–352
f
,
353
t
, 354
t
, 356–357
t
, 357
f
,
358
t
Posterior fornix, 1035
f
, 1040
Posterior (dorsal) funiculi, 467
f
,
468
Posterior gluteal line,
235
, 236
f
Posterior (dorsal) horns, 431
f
,
466
,
467
f
Posterior inferior iliac spine, 234,
236
f
Posterior intercostal arteries, 728
f
,
729
f
,
729
t
Posterior intercostal veins, 740–741
f
,
740
t
,
741
t
Posterior interventricular artery, 664
f
,
670
, 670
f
Posterior interventricular sulcus,
662
Posterior lobe, of cerebellum,
447
,
448
f
Posterior longitudinal ligament,
219
,
219
f
Posterior (dorsal) median sulcus,
445
f
, 465
f
,
466
, 467
f
Posterior muscles/muscle
compartment
of hip and thigh, 363
t
, 366–369
t
,
367–368
f
, 380
t
, 381
f
of leg, 370
t
, 373
t
, 374–375
f
, 380
t
,
381
f
Posterior nasal apertures (choanae),
803
, 804
f
Posterior pituitary gland,
598
, 600
f
hormones of, 599–601, 601
t
hypothalamus relationship and,
599–601, 600
f
, 602
t
Posterior pole of eye, 548
f
,
549
Polyp(s)
colon, carcinogenesis and, 145
b
,
146
f
nasal,
848
Polypeptide(s), 47, 893
f
synthesis of, 99–105, 102
f
, 103
f
,
104
f
, 106–107
f
, 108
f
, 109
f
.
See
also
Protein synthesis
Polyphagia, in diabetes,
620
, 621
t
Polyribosome, 105, 108
f
Polys (polymorphonuclear
leukocytes),
641
.
See also
Neutrophils
Polysaccharides,
43
, 44
f
, 908
Polyspermy,
1066
blocks to, 1066, 1069
f
Polysynaptic reflexes,
513
Polyunsaturated fats,
46
Polyuria, in diabetes,
620
, 621
t
Pons, 429, 429
f
, 430
f
, 440
f
, 443
f
,
444–445
f
,
445
, 451
t
.
See also
under Pontine
Pontine micturition center, 982, 983
f
Pontine nuclei, 445
Pontine respiratory centers/group,
834
–835, 834
f
Pontine storage center, 982, 983
f
Popliteal artery, 725
f
, 734–735
f
,
734
t
pulse at, 710
f
Popliteal ligaments
arcuate, 262
f
,
263
oblique, 262
f
,
263
Popliteal surface, 239, 239
f
Popliteal vein, 737
f
, 744
f
,
744
t
Popliteus muscle,
370
t
,
373
t
, 374–
375
f
, 380
t
Pores
alveolar,
812
, 812
f
, 813
f
in fenestrated capillaries, 697, 697
f
nuclear, 92
f
,
93
in plasma membrane.
See
Channels
sweat, 151
f
, 160–161
taste,
568
, 568
f
Porphyria,
171
Porta hepatis,
878
, 879
f
Portal-caval anastomoses, 881
Portal hypertension,
881
Portal system, 742
t
hepatic, 721,
742
t
hypophyseal, 599
Portal triad (portal tract region),
878
,
880
f
Portal veins
hepatic portal vein, 737
f
, 742–
743
f
,
742
t
,
878
, 879
f
, 880
f
hypophyseal portal vein,
599
, 601
f
Positional terms/anatomical position,
11
–13, 12
t
, 13
f
Positive chemotaxis,
640
, 769
Positive chronotropic factors, 684
Positive feedback,
10
action potential generation and,
401, 412
t
homeostasis and,
10
–11, 11
f
labor and, 11, 599, 1085, 1085
f
lactation and, 599, 1088, 1088
f
ovarian function and, 1048
f
, 1049
thermoregulation and, 947
Positive inotropic agents, 683
Positive nitrogen balance, 910
Positive selection,
776
, 776
f
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