I-42
Index
in hemostasis, 11, 11
f
, 645, 647,
648, 649
Platelet count,
654
Platelet-derived growth factor
(PDGF), 645,
649
Platelet factor 3 (PF
3
/
phosphatidylserine),
648
, 648
f
Platelet plug, 646–647, 646
f
positive feedback in formation of,
11, 11
f
, 647
Platysma muscle, 326
f
, 329
f
,
330
t
,
331
f
Pleura(e),
142
, 805
t
, 814
f
,
816
parietal, 18, 141
f
, 814
f
,
816
visceral, 18, 141
f
, 814
f
,
816
Pleural cavity,
14
, 18
f
, 814
f
,
816
.
See
also
Pleura(e)
Pleural effusion, 816
Pleural fluid,
816
Pleurisy,
816
Plexuses, nerve,
503
.
See also
specific
type
Pluripotent (hematopoietic) stem
cells,
128
,
636
, 636
f
, 642, 643
f
P
N2
.
See
Nitrogen, partial pressure of
Pneumocystis pneumonia, in AIDS,
793
Pneumonia,
848
aspiration, cle± lip/palate and, 244
Pneumotaxic center.
See
Pontine
respiratory centers/group
Pneumothorax,
817
PNS.
See
Peripheral nervous system
P
O
2
.
See
Oxygen, partial pressure of
Podocytes, 959
f
,
960
, 964
f
, 965
Poisons, chemiosmotic model of
oxidative phosphorylation
and, 923
Polar bodies, 1044, 1044
f
, 1045
first,
1044
, 1044
f
second, 1044
f
,
1045
Polar heads, of membrane
phospholipids, 45
f
, 47, 64
f
,
65
Polarity
of epithelial tissue, 118
of membrane,
79
,
397
phospholipid, 45
f
, 47, 64
f
, 65
of sarcolemma, 286
of water, 34, 34
f
, 38
Polar microtubules, 100
f
Polar molecule(s), 33–
34
, 34
f
water as, 34, 34
f
, 38
Poliomyelitis, 474
Pollex.
See
Tumb
Pollutants, environmental, endocrine
system affected by, 623
Polyatomic ions, 39
Polychromatic erythroblast,
636
, 636
f
Polycystic kidney disease, 984
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS),
1063
Polycythemia,
640
Polycythemia vera, 640
Polydipsia, in diabetes,
620
, 621
t
Polygene inheritance,
1101
, 1101
f
Polymer(s),
42
Polymerases, 97
DNA,
97
, 98
f
RNA,
103
, 103
f
Polymorphonuclear leukocytes
(PMNs/polys),
641
.
See also
Neutrophils
Plantar arch, 734–735
f
,
734
t
deep, 744
f
Plantar arteries, medial and lateral,
734–735
f
,
735
t
Plantar flexion (body movement),
258
, 259
f
of lower limb, 380
t
, 381
f
Plantar interossei muscles,
378
t
, 379
f
Plantaris muscle,
373
t
, 374–375
f
, 380
t
Plantar metatarsal arteries, 734
f
,
735
t
Plantar nerves, medial and lateral,
508
f
,
509
, 509
t
Plantar reflex,
518
–519
Plantar veins, 744
f
,
744
t
Plaque (dental),
861
Plaques (desmosome), 66, 67
f
Plaques (fibrous/atherosclerotic),
700
b
Plasma, 129
t
, 136, 137
f
, 632, 632
f
,
633
, 633
t
,
991
, 991
f
carbon dioxide transport in, 829,
833
f
electrolytes in, 992, 992
f
gas/nutrient/water/waste
exchanges and, 993, 993
f
oxygen transport in, 828, 833
f
Plasma cells, 642, 643
f
,
754
, 778
f
,
779
,
791
f
, 792
t
Plasma expanders,
653
Plasmalemma.
See
Plasma membrane
Plasma membrane, 62,
63
–81, 63
f
,
64
f
, 94
t
boundary maintenance and, 5
cell–environment interactions
and, 80–81, 82
f
in endomembrane system, 87, 87
f
resting membrane potential and,
79
–80, 79
f
, 397, 397
f
, 398
f
selective/differential permeability
of,
68
.
See also
Membrane(s),
permeability of; Membrane
transport
structure of, 63–67, 64
f
cell junctions and,
66
–67, 67
f
fluid mosaic model of,
63
–65,
64
f
, 66
f
glycocalyx and, 64
f
,
65
–66
transport functions of, 67–79, 68
f
active processes, 72–79, 74
f
,
75
f
, 76
f
, 77
f
, 78
t
passive processes, 68–72,
68
,
68
f
, 69
f
, 70
f
, 71
f
, 72
t
Plasmapheresis,
657
Plasma proteins, 51
t
, 633, 633
t
as clotting factors, 647, 647
t
Plasma thromboplastin antecedent
(P²A), 647
t
Plasma thromboplastin component
(P²C), 647
t
Plasmin,
649
Plasminogen,
649
Plasminogen activator.
See
²issue
plasminogen activator
Plasticity, smooth muscle, gastric
accommodation and, 873
Plateau, in cardiac muscle
contraction,
673
, 673
f
Platelet(s), 129
t
, 632, 632
f
, 634
f
, 641
f
,
644
t
,
645
–646, 645
f
deficiency of (thrombocytopenia),
650
formation of, 645–646, 645
f
neurologic (neurophysiology),
2
renal,
2
Pia mater
of brain, 459
f
,
460
spinal, 464, 467
f
Pica,
953
, 997
Pickup molecule, oxaloacetic acid as,
919, 920
f
Pigment(s)
skin, 156
visual (photopigments),
558
, 558
f
chemistry of, 559–560, 560
f
light and dark adaptation
and, 563
in phototransduction
(synthesis/bleaching/
regeneration), 560–561,
560
f
, 561
f
Pigmented layer of retina, 550
f
,
551
Pigmented nevi (moles), 156, 165
Pili,
157
.
See also
Hair(s)
Pineal gland/body, 440
f
,
443
, 445
f
,
592
f
,
617
–618
Pinealocytes,
617
Pinkeye, 546
Pinna (auricle),
570
, 571
f
Pinocytosis (fluid-phase endocytosis),
75
, 77
f
, 78
t
P
ip
.
See
Intrapleural pressure
PIP
2
(phosphatidyl inositol
bisphosphate),
595
PIP
2
-calcium signaling mechanism,
595
Piriformis muscle,
366
t
, 368
f
, 380
t
Piriform lobe, 436
Pisiform, 232
f
, 233
t
,
234
Pit(s)
gastric,
866
, 867
f
small intestine, 877
Pitch,
576
, 576
f
, 579
Pitocin.
See
Oxytocin
Pituicytes, 598
Pituitary dwarfism, 602
t
,
604
, 605
f
Pituitary gland (hypophysis),
441
,
442
f
, 444
f
, 592
f
,
598
–606,
600–601
f
, 602–603
t
.
See also
Anterior pituitary gland;
Posterior pituitary gland
developmental aspects of, 623
hypothalamus relationship and,
599, 599–601, 600–601
f
, 602–
603
t
, 1033–1034, 1034
f
Pituitary growth hormone.
See
Growth hormone
Pivot joints, 258,
260
f
Placenta, 621,
1071
, 1072–1073,
1073
f
, 1074
f
delivery of, 1086
f
,
1087
in fetal circulation, 1074
f
, 1079–
1081, 1080
f
formation of (placentation),
1071
–1074, 1073
f
hormones secreted by, 621, 1071,
1072
f
, 1073–1074, 1083
Placenta abruptio,
1094
Placental (third) stage of labor, 1086
f
,
1087
Placenta previa,
1094
Placentation,
1071
–1074, 1073
f
Plane joints, 258,
260
f
Planes (body), 14, 15
f
Planetary model of atom, 25
f
,
26
Phosphate buffer system,
1005
, 1008
Phosphatidylcholine, 45
f
, 46
t
Phosphatidyl inositol bisphosphate
(PIP
2
),
595
Phosphatidylserine (PF
3
/platelet
factor 3),
648
, 648
f
Phosphodiesterase (PDE), 561, 561
f
,
595
in hormone mechanism of action,
595
Phospholipase C,
595
Phospholipids, 45
f
, 46
t
,
47
, 927
in membranes, 47, 63, 64
f
,
65
Phosphoric acid, 1004
Phosphorus, 26
t
, 913, 915
t
Phosphorylation, 55, 56
f
,
913
, 916
f
direct, A²P for muscle
contraction and, 298, 299
f
,
300
f
oxidative, 914
f
, 916
f
,
917
, 917
f
,
920–923, 921
f
, 922
f
, 923
f
, 924
f
metabolic poisons and, 923
substrate level,
916
–917, 916
f
,
917
f
, 919, 924
f
Photodamage, melanin and, 156
Photons,
553
Photopigments (visual pigments),
558
, 558
f
chemistry of, 559–560, 560
f
light and dark adaptation and,
563
in phototransduction (synthesis/
bleaching/regeneration),
560–561, 560
f
, 561
f
Photoreceptors,
484
, 550
f
,
551
,
556
563, 558
f
, 559
t
, 560
f
, 561
f
, 562
f
electromagnetic spectrum and
sensitivities of, 554
f
information processing and,
561–562, 563
f
light and dark adaptation and,
563
visual pigment chemistry and,
559–560, 560
f
Photosensitivity, 156
Phototransduction,
556
, 560–561,
561
f
Phrenic arteries
inferior, 730
f
,
731
t
, 732
f
superior,
729
t
Phrenic nerve, 503
f
, 503
t
,
505
,
834
diaphragm supplied by, 340
t
,
503
t
, 505, 834
in respiration, 505,
834
Phrenic veins, inferior, 742–743
f
,
742
t
pH units,
40
Phylloquinone (vitamin K), 46
t
, 912,
912
t
clotting factor production and,
647, 650
Physiological acidosis, 1004
Physiological buffering systems, 41
renal, 1006–1009, 1007
f
, 1008
f
,
1009
f
respiratory, 832, 836, 836
f
, 837,
1006
Physiological jaundice, 1088,
1094
Physiology, 2–3,
2
cardiovascular,
2
complementarity principle and,
3
, 62
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