Index
I-41
Petit mal (absence) seizures, 452–453
Petrous region, temporal bone, 205
f
,
206
f
, 207
f
,
208
, 208
f
Peyer’s patches, 755, 756
f
,
759
, 760
f
PF
3
(platelet factor 3/
phosphatidylserine),
648
, 648
f
pH,
40
, 40
f
, 1004
of blood, 40
f
, 41, 632, 1004.
See
also
Acid-base balance
in acidosis/alkalosis, 1004,
1009–1010, 1010
t
, 1011
b
carbon dioxide affecting, 832
chemical control and, 41
hemoglobin saturation
affected by, 828–829, 832
f
normal, 40
f
, 41, 1004, 1011
b
renal control and, 972, 973
f
,
1006–1009, 1007
f
, 1008
f
,
1009
f
compensations for
abnormalities and,
1012
respiratory control and, 832,
836, 836
f
, 837, 1006
compensations for
abnormalities and, 832,
837, 1011
of pancreatic fluid, 883
of semen, 1026
of urine, 979
of vagina, 1040
Phagocytosis/phagocytes,
75
, 77
f
, 78
t
,
766, 767
f
, 769–771, 769
f
, 770
t
in antibody mechanism of action,
782, 782
f
Phagolysosome,
766
, 767
f
Phagosome,
75
, 77
f
, 78
t
,
766
, 767
f
Phalanges
of foot (toes), 200
f
, 241
f
,
242
,
243
t
of hand (fingers), 200
f
, 232
f
,
233
t
,
234
Phantom limb pain,
489
Pharyngeal cle±,
585
Pharyngeal constrictor muscles,
334
t
,
335
f
,
335
t
, 862
Pharyngeal-esophageal phase of
swallowing,
863
, 864
f
, 885
t
Pharyngeal pouches,
585
Pharyngeal tonsils,
759
, 759
f
, 804
f
,
806
Pharyngotympanic (auditory) tube,
571
f
,
572
, 572
f
, 804
f
, 806
Pharynx, 802
f
, 804
f
, 805
t
,
806
, 850
f
,
861–862, 885
t
muscles of, swallowing control
and, 334–335
t
, 335
f
Phasic receptors,
488
Phendimetrazine, 943
b
Phenocopies,
1102
Phenotype,
1097
, 1099, 1099
f
Phentermine, 943
b
Phenylketonuria (PKU), 948
Pheochromocytoma, 616
Phlebitis,
750
Phlebotomy,
750
Phosphatases, 893
f
,
895
Phosphate
balance/imbalance of, 998
t
,
1003–1004
in bone remodeling, 187
Phosphate bonds, high-energy, 55,
55
f
sensory receptors and,
484
–487,
485–486
t
Peripheral neuropathy,
523
Peripheral process,
393
, 394
t
Peripheral proteins, 64
f
Peripheral (vascular) resistance,
702,
704, 705–707, 705
f
, 706
f
, 709
f
Peripheral thermoreceptors,
945
Peripheral tissues, cholesterol
transport to, 936–937, 936
f
Perirenal fat capsule,
955
, 956
f
Peristalsis,
306
,
851
, 851
f
, 885
t
in large intestine, 885
t
, 890–891
mass, 885
t
,
890
in small intestine, 885
t
, 886–887,
886
t
in stomach, 873–874, 873
f
, 885
t
swallowing and, 863–864, 864
f
,
885
t
Peritoneal cavity,
852
, 853
f
.
See also
Peritoneum
Peritoneal (intraperitoneal) organs,
853
Peritoneum(s),
142
,
852
, 853
f
parietal, 18, 141
f
,
852
, 853
f
, 889
f
visceral, 18, 141
f
,
852
, 853
f
, 854
f
,
855
, 889
f
Peritonitis,
853
–854, 887
Peritubular capillaries, 961
f
,
962
Permanent teeth/permanent
dentition,
859
, 860
f
Permeability
of lymph capillaries, 752
membrane,
68
.
See also
Membrane transport
action potential and, 400, 401,
402–403
f
diffusion and osmosis and,
70–71, 70
f
resting membrane potential
and, 79–80, 79
f
, 397, 398
f
vascular, inflammation and,
767–769, 768
f
Permissiveness, hormone,
598
Pernicious anemia, 639, 870
Peroneal (fibular) artery, 734–735
f
,
735
t
Peroneal (fibular) muscles,
370
t
, 381
f
.
See also
specific muscle
Peroneal (fibular) nerve
common, 508, 508
f
,
509
, 509
t
deep, 508
f
, 509
t
leg muscles supplied by, 369
t
,
370
t
, 373
t
superficial, 508
f
, 509
t
Peroneal (fibular) retinacula,
370
t
,
371
f
Peroneal (fibular) vein, 744
f
,
744
t
Peroneus (fibularis) brevis muscle,
372
f
,
373
t
, 374–375
f
, 380
t
Peroneus (fibularis) longus muscle,
326
f
, 327
f
, 371
f
, 372
f
,
373
t
,
374–375
f
, 380
t
Peroneus (fibularis) tertius muscle,
370
t
, 371
f
, 372
f
, 380
t
Peroxisomes, 63
f
,
85
–86, 94
t
Perpendicular plate, 203
f
, 205
f
,
210
,
210
f
,
212
, 214
f
Perspiration.
See also
Sweat; Sweating
insensible, 163, 945
sensible, 163, 945
Petechiae, 650
Perforating (Volkmann’s) canals,
181
, 182
f
Perforating (Sharpey’s) fibers, 178–
179, 178
f
, 182
f
Perforins,
789
, 789
f
, 792
t
Perfusion, 826.
See also
Blood flow
Periaqueductal gray matter, 444
Pericardial arteries,
729
t
Pericardial cavity,
14
, 18
f
,
660
, 661
f
Pericardial friction rub, 661
Pericarditis, 661
Pericardium,
142
,
660
, 661
f
parietal, 18, 19
f
, 141
f
,
660
, 661
f
visceral, 18, 19
f
, 141
f
,
660
,
661
,
661
f
, 665
f
Perichondrium, 132, 174
Pericytes,
696
, 697
f
Perikaryon (cell body), of neurons,
390
, 391
f
, 394
t
Perilymph,
573
, 574
f
, 575, 577
Perimetrium, 1035
f
, 1037
f
,
1038
Perimysium,
278
, 279
f
, 283
t
, 310
t
Perineal muscle
deep transverse,
344
t
, 345
f
superficial transverse,
344
t
, 345
f
Perineal space, superficial,
344
t
, 345
f
Perineum
central tendon of,
344
t
, 345
f
female, 1040
f
,
1041
male,
1022
, 1022
f
muscles of, 344
t
, 345
f
Perineurium,
490
, 491
f
Perinuclear cytoplasm, outer collar
of, 392
f
, 393
Periodic table,
25
Periodontal disease/periodontitis,
861
Periodontal ligament, 250
f
,
251
, 860
f
,
861
Periosteal bone collar, 183, 184
f
Periosteal bud,
184
, 184
f
Periosteal cells, 181
Periosteal layer of dura mater, 459,
459
f
Periosteum (bone),
178
–179, 178
f
,
182
f
, 185
f
Peripheral chemoreceptors,
835
, 835
f
,
836–837, 836
f
, 837, 837
f
Peripheral congestion, in heart
failure,
685
Peripheral connective tissue sheath,
hair follicle,
158
, 158
f
Peripheral nervous system,
387
, 388
f
,
483–523,
484
, 484
f
case study and, 523
b
developmental aspects of, 519
motor endings/motor activity
and, 511–513, 512
f
myelination in, 392–393, 392
f
nerves/associated ganglia and,
387,
390
, 490–511, 491
f
, 492
f
cranial nerves, 387, 388
f
,
492
501, 493
f
, 494–500
t
spinal nerves and, 387, 388
f
,
465
f
, 466, 467
f
,
468
, 468
f
,
501
–511, 501
f
, 502
f
neuroglia (supporting cells) of,
389
f
, 390
reflex activity, 513–519, 513
f
,
514
f
, 515
f
, 516
f
, 517
f
, 518
f
regeneration and, 491, 492
f
sensory integration and, 487–490,
488
f
Pattern recognition,
489
P
CO
2
.
See
Carbon dioxide, partial
pressure of
Pectinate line, 888, 888
f
Pectinate muscles,
662
, 664–665
f
Pectineus muscle, 326
f
, 364
f
,
365
t
,
380
t
Pectoral (shoulder) girdle,
227
bones of, 200
f
,
227
–228, 227
f
,
233
t
muscles of, 326
f
, 327
f
, 346–348
t
,
347–349
f
, 358
t
Pectoralis major muscle, 326
f
,
346
t
,
347
f
,
350
t
, 351
f
, 358
t
Pectoralis minor muscle, 326
f
,
346
t
,
347
f
Pectoral nerves, 504
f
, 505
t
Pedicles, vertebral,
220
, 220
f
Pedigree,
1103
Pelvic brim, 235, 235
f
, 237
t
,
238
Pelvic cavity,
18
, 18
f
Pelvic diaphragm,
344
t
, 345
f
Pelvic floor, muscles of, 344
t
, 345
f
prolapse of uterus and, 1038
Pelvic (hip) girdle, 200
f
,
234
–238,
235
f
, 236
f
, 237
t
, 243
t
.
See also
under Hip
Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID),
1038
, 1053
Pelvic inlet, 237
t
,
238
Pelvic (pelvic splanchnic) nerves,
528
f
,
529
Pelvic outlet, 237
t
,
238
Pelvic pain syndrome/chronic
prostatitis, 1025
Pelvic (inferior hypogastric) plexus,
528
f
,
529
Pelvimetry,
248
Pelvis, 235, 235
f
, 237
t
,
238
arteries of, 734–735
f
, 734–735
t
muscles of, 326
f
sympathetic pathways to, 531–
533, 532
f
veins of, 744
f
, 744
t
Pelvis (renal),
956
, 957
f
, 979
f
Penetration enhancers (drug agents),
163
Penis, 1019, 1019
f
, 1020
f
,
1022
–1023,
1022
f
, 1023
f
autonomic innervation/effects
and, 528
f
, 532
f
, 536
t
bulb of, 1019
f
embryologic/fetal development
of, 1055, 1056
f
, 1057
f
Pennate fascicle pattern/muscles,
322
–323, 322
f
Pentose sugars, 43, 44
f
, 893
f
, 895, 897
Pepsin,
866
, 885
t
, 893
f
,
894
gastric secretion of,
866
, 867
f
, 870
Pepsinogen, chief cell secretion of,
866, 867
f
, 894
Peptic ulcers,
869
, 869
f
,
905
Peptide(s), 51
t
, 893
f
as neurotransmitters, 416
t
,
417
Peptide bond,
47
, 48
f
formation of, 105, 107
f
Percent, solution concentration,
29
Perception, 484,
487
sensory integration at level of,
487, 488–489, 488
f
Perceptual detection,
489
Perforated eardrum, 584
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