I-40
Index
Paraventricular nuclei, 442, 442
f
,
599
Paravertebral (sympathetic trunk/
chain) ganglia, 502
f
,
529
–531,
530
f
, 532
f
Paresthesia,
474
,
523
spinal cord trauma causing,
474
Parietal bones,
202
, 203
f
, 204
f
, 205
f
,
206
f
, 207
f
,
216
t
, 244
f
Parietal cells,
866
, 867
f
control of acid secretion by,
870–871, 872
f
Parietal layer
of glomerular capsule, 958, 959
f
,
964
f
of serous pericardium, 18, 19
f
,
141
f
,
660
, 661
f
Parietal lobe,
431
, 432
f
, 434
f
Parietal pericardium, 18, 19
f
, 141
f
,
660
, 661
f
Parietal peritoneum, 18, 141
f
,
852
,
853
f
, 889
f
Parietal pleura, 18, 141
f
, 814
f
,
816
Parietal serosa,
18
, 19
f
Parieto-occipital sulcus,
431
, 432
f
,
434
f
Parkinson’s disease, 444,
464
Parotid duct, 858, 858
f
Parotid glands, 850
f
,
858
, 858
f
autonomic innervation/effects
and, 528
f
mumps affecting, 858
Paroxysmal atrial tachycardia,
691
Partial pressures,
824
, 825
t
.
See also
specific gas
external respiration (pulmonary
gas exchange) and, 826, 826
t
internal respiration and, 826
f
, 827
Partial-thickness burns, 166, 166
f
Particle size, chemical reaction rate
affected by, 38
Parturition,
1085
–1087, 1085
f
, 1086
f
.
See also
Birth
Passive humoral immunity,
780
, 780
f
Passive processes/transport, 68–72,
68
, 68
f
, 69
f
, 70
f
, 71
f
, 72
t
.
See
also
Diffusion; Filtration
facilitated diffusion, 68–
69
, 69
f
,
72
t
osmosis, 68,
69
–71, 69
f
, 70
f
simple diffusion,
68
, 69
f
, 72
t
Passive tubular reabsorption, 968
of solutes, 969–970, 970
f
of water, 969, 970
f
Patched (
ptc
) gene, UV radiation
affecting, 164
Patella, 200
f
, 238,
239
, 239
f
,
243
t
,
262, 262–263
f
Patellar ligament, 262–263
f
,
263
Patellar (knee-jerk) reflex, 474,
515
,
516
f
Patellar retinacula, medial and lateral,
262
f
,
263
Patellar surface,
238
, 239
f
Patent ductus arteriosus, 686
Paternal chromosome, 1027
Pathogens,
765
attenuated, for vaccines, 780
Pathological anatomy, 2
Pathologic fracture,
198
Pathology,
149
Pattern generators, central,
511
–512,
512
f
Pancreatic polypeptide, 618
Pancreatic proteases, 883, 883
f
, 894
f
,
895
Pancreatitis,
905
Paneth cells, 877
Pannus, in rheumatoid arthritis,
272
Panoramic vision, 564
Pantothenic acid (vitamin B
5
), 912
t
Papanicolaou (Pap) smear, 1038
Papilla(e)
dermal, 151
f
,
154
duodenal, major,
875
, 875
f
hair, 158, 158
f
renal medullary, 956, 957
f
of tongue,
568
, 568
f
, 857, 857
f
Papillary layer of dermis, 151
f
,
154
155, 154
f
Papillary muscles,
662
, 665
f
, 666
f
,
667, 667
f
Papilledema,
590
Papillomavirus, human
cervical cancer and, 1038
genital warts caused by, 1054
vaccine against, 1038
Pap smear, 1038
Paracellular route, of tubular
reabsorption, 968, 969
f
Paracrines, 81,
592
–593
in digestion, 868
t
in glomerular filtration rate
regulation, 968
Parafollicular (C) cells, 606
f
, 607,
610
Parahippocampal gyrus, 434
f
, 437,
449, 449
f
Parallel a±er-discharge circuits, 422
f
Parallel fascicle pattern/muscles,
322
,
322
f
Parallel processing,
422
–423
Paralysis,
474
spinal cord damage causing,
474
stroke (motor cortex damage)
causing, 435, 463
Paramesonephric (Müllerian) ducts,
1055
, 1056
f
Paranasal sinuses,
215
, 215
f
, 805
t
,
806
Paraneuron(s), 621
Paraplegia,
474
Parasagittal plane/section,
14
Parasitic infections, 783
Parasympathetic (craniosacral)
division of autonomic nervous
system,
387
, 388
f
, 525
f
,
526
,
526
f
,
527
–529, 527
f
, 528
f
, 529
t
heart regulation and, 527
f
, 528
f
,
676, 677
f
, 682
f
, 684, 705
f
salivation control and, 859
Parasympathetic motor fibers, 388
f
Parasympathetic tone,
537
Parasympathomimetic agents,
autonomic activity and, 535
t
Parathyroid cells, 610
f
,
611
Parathyroid glands, 592
f
,
610
–611,
610
f
, 611
f
aging affecting, 623
Parathyroid hormone (PTH/
parathormone),
187
,
611
, 898,
972,
1003
bone and, 187–188, 188
f
, 611, 611
f
calcium relationship and, 188,
188
f
, 596, 597
f
, 611, 611
f
, 898,
1003
–1004
in tubular reabsorption, 972, 973
f
Packed red cell transfusions,
650
Pagetic bone, 193
Paget’s disease,
193
Pain
in inflammation, 767, 768, 768
f
perception of, 489–490, 490
f
referred,
490
, 490
f
visceral, 490
Pain receptors (nociceptors), 154,
484
, 485
t
, 486
t
, 489
Pain threshold, 489
Pain tolerance, 489
Palate, 803,
857
cle±, 244, 244
f
,
898
–899
hard, 206
f
, 212, 214
f
,
803
, 804
f
,
856
f
,
857
so±,
803
, 804
f
, 856
f
,
857
Palatine bones, 205
f
, 206
f
,
212
, 214
f
,
217
t
Palatine processes, 205
f
, 206
f
,
212
,
214
f
,
217
t
Palatine raphe, 856
f
Palatine suture, median, 206
f
, 212,
217
t
Palatine tonsils,
759
, 759
f
, 804
f
,
806
,
856
f
, 857
f
Palatoglossal arches, 856
f
,
857
, 857
f
Palatopharyngeal arches, 856
f
,
857
,
857
f
Pallor, 156
Palmar arches
arterial, 725
f
, 728
f
,
728
t
, 729
f
venous,
740
t
Palmar interossei muscle, 361
f
,
362
t
Palmaris longus muscle, 326
f
,
354
t
,
355
f
, 358
t
Palm of hand (metacarpus),
234
bones of (metacarpals), 200
f
, 232
f
,
233
t
,
234
muscles of, 354
t
, 360–362
t
, 361
f
Palpation, 2
Palpebrae (eyelids),
545
, 545
f
Palpebral conjunctiva, 545
f
,
546
Palpebral fissure,
545
, 545
f
Palpitation, heart,
690
Pampiniform venous plexus, 1020
f
,
1022
Pancreas, 592
f
,
618
–620, 618
f
, 619
f
,
621
t
, 850
f
, 875
f
,
882
–883,
882
f
, 883
f
autonomic innervation/effects
and, 527
f
, 528
f
, 536
t
in digestion, 850
f
, 875
f
,
882
–883,
882
f
, 883–884, 884
f
, 885
t
endocrine, 592
f
,
618
–620, 618
f
,
619
f
, 621
t
transplantation of for diabetes,
624–625
b
Pancreatic amylase,
883
,
892
, 893
f
Pancreatic ducts, 875
f
,
882
, 882
f
Pancreatic enzymes.
See
Pancreatic
juice
Pancreatic islets (islets of
Langerhans),
618
, 618
f
, 883,
624–625
b
Pancreatic juice/pancreatic enzymes,
882
, 893
f
composition of, 883, 883
f
regulation of secretion of, 883–
884, 884
f
Pancreatic lipase,
883
, 893
f
, 895, 895
f
Pancreatic nucleases,
883
,
895
Oxidative phosphorylation, 914
f
,
916
f
,
917
, 917
f
, 920–923, 921
f
,
922
f
, 923
f
, 924
f
metabolic poisons and, 923
Oxidized reactant, in redox reaction,
36
Oxygen,
8
, 25, 26
t
in blood, erythrocytes carrying,
635
as chemically reactive element,
31
f
exchange of, 802, 811, 813
f
,
825–827, 826
f
, 827
f
hyperbaric, 825
maximum amount used in
aerobic metabolism, aging
affecting, 842
partial pressure of (P
O
2
), 824, 825
t
alveolar, 825, 825
t
external respiration
(pulmonary gas exchange)
and, 826, 826
t
hemoglobin saturation
affected by, 828, 830–831
f
internal respiration and, 826
f
,
827
perfusion affected by, 826–
827, 827
f
respiratory rate and depth
affected by, 836–837, 837
solubility of, 824
supplemental, for COPD, 840
as survival requirement,
8
transport of, 635, 828–829,
830–831
f
, 832
f
, 833
f
Oxygen debt (excess postexercise
oxygen consumption),
301
Oxygen gas, formation of, 33
f
Oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation
curve,
828
, 830–831
f
Oxygen toxicity,
825
Oxyhemoglobin,
635
,
828
Oxyphil cells, 610
f
, 611
Oxytocin,
599
, 600
f
, 602
t
,
1085
homeostatic control of, 11
labor and, 11, 599, 602
t
,
1085
,
1085
f
lactation and, 599, 602
t
, 1088, 1088
f
P.
See
Phosphorus
p16
gene, in cancer, 145
b
p53
gene
in cancer, 99, 145
b
cell division control and, 99
UV radiation affecting, 164
Pacemaker,
675
.
See also
Pacemaker
cells
Pacemaker cells
in cardiac muscle, 311
t
,
674
action potential initiation and,
674
–675, 674
f
defects in, 676
sequence of excitation and,
675–676, 675
f
enteric, 873
respiratory rhythm and, 835
in smooth muscle, 307, 311
t
Pacemaker potentials (prepotentials),
674
, 674
f
Pacinian (lamellar) corpuscles, 151
f
,
154, 163, 486
t
,
487
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