Index
I-39
fertilization of, 1044
f
, 1045,
1065
1067, 1065
f
, 1068–1069
f
,
1070
f
.
See also
Fertilization
production of (oogenesis),
1043
1045, 1044
f
Oval window, 571
f
,
572
, 577, 577
f
Ovarian arteries, 732
f
,
732
t
,
1036
Ovarian branch, of uterine arteries,
1036
Ovarian cancer,
1063
Ovarian cortex, 1036, 1036
f
Ovarian cycle,
1045
–1047, 1046
f
,
1050
f
hormonal regulation of, 1047–
1049, 1048
f
Ovarian cysts,
1063
Ovarian follicles,
1036
, 1036
f
, 1045–
1047, 1046
f
, 1050
f
dominant, 1044, 1047
preantral, 1047
primary, 1036
f
, 1043, 1044
f
, 1045,
1046
f
, 1050
f
primordial, 1036,
1043
, 1044
f
,
1045, 1046
f
secondary, 1036
f
, 1044
f
,
1045
,
1046
f
, 1050
f
late,
1045
, 1046
f
vesicular (antral/tertiary),
1036
,
1036
f
, 1044
f
, 1045–1047,
1046
f
,
1047
, 1050
f
Ovarian ligament,
1036
, 1037
f
Ovarian medulla, 1036, 1036
f
Ovarian vein,
742
t
Ovaries, 592
f
, 620, 1018,
1035
, 1035
f
,
1036
f
, 1037
f
aging affecting, 623
cancer of,
1063
descent of, 1055
embryologic/fetal development
of, 1055, 1056
f
polycystic,
1063
surgical removal of
(oophorectomy),
1063
Overflow incontinence, 982
Overhydration, 996, 997
f
urine concentration and, 976, 977
f
Overload principle, in exercise, 305
Overuse injuries,
305
tendonitis,
270
Overweight, 939
Oviducts (uterine tubes), 1035, 1035
f
,
1037
–1038, 1037
f
.
See also
Uterine (fallopian) tubes
Ovulation, 1036, 1044
f
, 1046
f
,
1047
,
1048
f
, 1049, 1050
f
awareness of, contraceptive
methods and, 1090
b
lactation and, 1089
Ovum.
See
Ova
Oxaloacetic acid,
919
, 920
f
Oxidase(s), 51
t
, 52, 85–86,
916
Oxidation,
914
–916
beta,
926
, 926
f
, 929
t
in Krebs cycle,
919
, 920
f
water of (metabolic water),
994
Oxidation-reduction (redox)
reactions,
36
–37,
916
Oxidative deamination, 928, 928
f
,
929, 929
t
Oxidative fibers,
302
fast,
302
, 303
t
, 304
slow, 302–303,
302
, 303
f
, 303
t
Ossification centers
in endochondral ossification, 183,
184, 184
f
in intramembranous ossification,
185
f
primary,
183
, 184
f
secondary,
184
, 184
f
in skull, 244, 244
f
Ossification (osteogenic) zone
(epiphyseal plate), 185, 186
f
Ostealgia,
197
Osteitis,
197
Osteitis fibrosa cystica, 611
Osteoarthritis (degenerative joint
disease),
270
Osteoblasts,
128
, 129
t
, 136,
179
–180,
179
f
hormones produced by, 623
Osteocalcin, 177, 623
Osteochondral gra±ing, in joint
therapy, 271
b
Osteoclasts, 179
f
,
181
,
187
parathyroid hormone release and,
611, 611
f
Osteocytes, 129
t
,
136
, 137
f
, 179
f
,
180
in bone remodeling, 187
Osteogenesis (ossification),
183
–187,
184
f
, 185
f
, 186
f
.
See also
Ossification
Osteogenesis imperfecta (brittle bone
disease),
149
,
198
Osteogenic cells, 178,
179
, 179
f
Osteogenic layer, of periosteum, 178
Osteogenic (ossification) zone
(epiphyseal plate), 185, 186
f
Osteoid,
183
, 185
f
Osteoid seam, 187
Osteomalacia,
192
Osteomyelitis,
198
Osteon (Haversian system), 136,
181
,
181
f
, 182
f
Osteoporosis,
192
–193, 192
f
hip fracture and, 192, 245
of spine, 192, 245
Osteoprogenitor (osteogenic) cells,
178,
179
, 179
f
Osteosarcoma,
198
Otalgia,
590
Otic ganglia, 499
t
,
528
, 528
f
Otic pit,
585
Otic placode,
585
Otic vesicle,
585
Otitis externa,
590
Otitis media,
572
Otoacoustic emissions,
590
Otolithic membrane,
580
, 580
f
,
581
f
Otoliths,
580
, 580
f
Otorhinolaryngology,
848
Otosclerosis,
584
Outer collar of perinuclear
cytoplasm, 392
f
, 393
Outer ear.
See
External ear
Outer fiber, rod, 557, 558
f
Outer hair cells, 574
f
,
578
motility of, 578–579
Outer mitochondrial membrane,
83, 83
f
Outer segments, rod and cone, 550
f
,
557
Outlet, pelvic, 237
t
,
238
Ova (eggs), 620, 1019,
1045
Organic components, in bone, 183
Organic compounds,
38
, 41–56.
See
also
specific type
Organic solvents, skin penetrated by,
162, 163
Organism/organismal level,
structural organization at,
3
, 4
f
Organization, in tissue repair,
142
,
143
f
Organ level, structural organization
at,
3
, 4
f
Organogenesis (germ layer
differentiation),
1076
–1081,
1076
f
, 1077
f
, 1078
f
, 1079
f
,
1080
f
Organ systems, 3, 4
f
, 6–7
f
.
See also
specific system
interrelationships among, 5
f
structural organization at level
of,
3
, 4
f
Organ transplants, 790–792
Orgasm
in female, 1052
in male,
1027
Orientation.
See
Equilibrium/
orientation
Origin (muscle),
156
,
278
naming muscles and, 320
Origins of replication, 97
Orlistat, 943
b
Oropharynx, 804
f
,
806
, 856, 856
f
,
861
Orthochromatic erythroblast,
636
,
636
f
Orthodontics,
905
Orthopedist/orthopedic surgeon,
248
Orthopnea,
848
Orthostatic hypotension,
539
, 711
Oscillating circuits, 422
f
Os coxae (hip bones/coxal bones),
234–235,
234
, 235
f
, 236
f
,
243
t
Osmol, 72, 973
Osmolality, extracellular fluid, 993–
997, 994
f
, 996
f
, 997
f
.
See also
Water balance
Osmolarity,
70
–71, 70
f
, 72
Osmoreceptors, 442, 599, 994, 994
f
,
995, 999
t
Osmosis, 68,
69
–71, 69
f
, 70
f
, 72, 72
t
in digestion, 898
Osmotic diuresis, 621
t
Osmotic diuretics, 976
Osmotic gradient, medullary,
973
,
974–975
f
urea recycling and, 976, 977
f
Osmotic pressure,
71
, 718–719
f
colloid,
717
, 718–719
f
in capsular space, 965
in glomerular capillaries, 965
f
,
966
fluid movement among
compartments and,
71
, 993
Osseous spiral lamina,
573
, 574
f
Osseous tissue, 129
t
,
136
, 137
f
.
See
also
Bone(s)/skeletal tissue
Ossicles, auditory, 571
f
,
572
, 572
f
,
577, 577
f
Ossification (osteogenesis),
183
–187,
184
f
, 185
f
, 186
f
endochondral, 183,
183
–185,
184
f
intramembranous, 183,
185
, 185
f
of skull bones, 244, 244
f
Open (compound) fracture, 191
Open (internal) reduction of fracture,
191
OP
gc
.
See
Colloid osmotic pressure, in
glomerular capillaries
Ophthalmic artery, 726
f
,
726
t
, 727
f
Ophthalmic division of trigeminal
nerve (cranial nerve V
1
),
496
t
Ophthalmic vein, 738–739
f
,
738
t
Ophthalmology,
590
OP
if
.
See
Interstitial fluid colloid
osmotic pressure
Opponens digiti minimi muscle,
360
t
, 361
f
Opponens pollicis muscle,
360
t
, 361
f
Opposition (body movement),
258
,
259
f
Opsins,
559
Opsonins,
766
Opsonization,
766
, 772
f
, 773
Optic canals, 203
f
, 207
f
, 209
f
,
210
,
216
t
Optic chiasma, 440
f
, 444
f
,
563
, 564
f
Optic cups,
585
Optic disc (blind spot), 548
f
, 550
f
,
551
, 551
f
Optic nerve (cranial nerve II), 444
f
,
493
, 493
f
,
494
t
, 548
f
, 550
f
,
563
, 564
f
damage to, 494
t
, 565
Optic radiation,
563
, 564
f
Optics, 553–556, 554
f
, 555
f
, 557
f
Optic tracts, 444
f
,
563
, 564
f
Optic vesicles,
585
Optometrist,
590
Oral cavity (mouth),
19
, 850
f
,
856
–861, 856
f
.
See also
specific
structure
development of, 898, 899
f
digestive processes occurring in,
851
f
, 863–864, 864
f
, 885
t
, 892,
893
f
Oral cavity proper,
857
Oral contraceptive pill, 1090
b
Oral membrane,
898
, 899
f
Oral orifice,
856
Oral vestibule, 856
f
,
857
Ora serrata, 548
f
,
551
Orbicularis oculi muscle, 326
f
,
330
t
,
331
f
,
545
, 545
f
Orbicularis oris muscle, 326
f
,
330
t
,
331
f
, 856
Orbit(s) (orbital cavity),
19
, 202, 202
f
,
213
, 213
f
Orbital fissure
inferior, 203
f
,
212
,
217
t
superior, 203
f
, 209
f
,
210
,
216
t
Orbital model of atom/orbitals, 25
f
,
26
, 31
Orbital plates,
210
, 210
f
Orbital process, 212
Orbitofrontal cortex, 434
f
Orchiectomy, 1022
Orchitis, 1022
Orexins, 455, 940
f
Organ(s), 3, 4
f
.
See also
specific organ
Organ of Corti.
See
Spiral organ
Organelles, 3, 4
f
,
81
, 83–89, 94–95
t
.
See also
specific type
degradation of, 109–110
Organic acid (carboxyl) groups, 47,
48
f
, 1005
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