I-38
Index
Olfaction (sense of smell), 565–567,
566
f
, 567
f
cortical areas for, 434
f
, 436, 567
developmental aspects of, 584–585
disorders/homeostatic imbalances
and, 570
physiology of, 567
taste sensation and, 569
Olfactory adaptation, 567
Olfactory auras, 570
Olfactory axons, 566, 566
f
, 567
Olfactory bulbs, 434
f
, 449
f
, 566
f
,
567
Olfactory cilia,
566
, 566
f
Olfactory (smell) cortex, primary,
434
f
,
436
, 567
Olfactory epithelium,
565
–567, 566
f
,
804
f
,
805
Olfactory filaments,
566
, 566
f
Olfactory gland, 566
f
Olfactory hallucinations, 570
Olfactory mucosa,
805
.
See also
Olfactory epithelium
Olfactory nerve (cranial nerve I),
492
–493, 493
f
,
494
t
, 804
f
filaments of, 492–493, 493
f
, 494
t
,
566
, 566
f
Olfactory pathway, 567
Olfactory pits,
841
Olfactory placodes,
841
, 842
f
Olfactory sensory neurons/olfactory
receptors,
565
–566, 566
f
activation of, 567
specificity of, 566–567
sperm, 1066
Olfactory stem cells,
566
, 566
f
Olfactory tract, 434
f
, 566
f
,
567
Olfactory transduction, 567, 567
f
Oligodendrocytes, 389
f
,
390
CNS fiber regeneration and, 492
myelin sheaths formed by, 389
f
,
390, 393
Oligosaccharides, 893
f
Oliguria, 995
Olivary nuclei
inferior,
446
superior,
579
, 579
f
Olive(s), 444
f
,
446
Omega-3 fatty acids,
47
, 938
Omentum (omenta), greater and
lesser, 853,
866
, 889
f
Omohyoid muscle,
334
t
, 335
f
, 337
f
Oncogenes,
145
b
Oncotic pressure (capillary colloid
osmotic pressure/OP
c
),
717
,
718–719
f
One-molar solution, 30
Oocyte(s),
1036
, 1044
f
.
See also
Ova
primary,
1043
, 1044
f
, 1046
f
secondary,
1044
–1045, 1044
f
,
1046
f
fertilization of, 1044
f
, 1045.
See also
Fertilization
sperm-binding receptors on,
1067, 1069
f
Oogenesis,
1043
–1045, 1044
f
spermatogenesis compared with,
1045
Oogonia,
1043
, 1044
f
Oophorectomy,
1063
OP.
See
Colloid osmotic pressure
OP
c
.
See
Capillary colloid osmotic
pressure
Nyctalopia (night blindness), 563, 912
t
Nystagmus, vestibular,
581
O.
See
Oxygen
Obesity, 939, 942–943
b
diabetes and, 625
b
hypertension and, 711
leptin and,
940
–941
Obligatory water losses,
995
Obligatory water reabsorption,
969
Oblique fissure, 814
f
, 815
Oblique layer, of stomach muscularis,
865
f
, 866, 867
f
Oblique muscles
of abdominal wall
external, 326
f
,
342
t
, 343
f
internal, 326
f
,
342
t
, 343
f
of eye, 547, 547
f
Oblique popliteal ligament, 262
f
,
263
Oblique sections,
14
Obstructive jaundice, 882
Obstructive pulmonary diseases
chronic (COPD),
839
–840, 839
f
pulmonary function testing in,
823
Obturator artery, 734–735
f
,
734
t
Obturator externus muscle, 368
f
,
368
t
, 380
t
Obturator foramen,
235
, 236
f
Obturator internus muscle, 368
f
,
368
t
, 380
t
Obturator nerve,
506
, 507
f
, 507
t
Occipital artery, 726
f
,
726
t
, 727
f
Occipital belly, of epicranius, 327
f
,
329
f
,
329
t
, 331
f
Occipital bone,
202
–203, 204
f
, 205
f
,
206
f
, 207
f
,
216
t
, 244
f
Occipital condyles,
202
, 203
f
, 206
f
,
216
t
Occipital crest, external, 203, 203
f
,
206
f
,
216
t
Occipital lobe,
431
, 432
f
, 434
f
, 563,
564
f
Occipital nerve, lesser, 503
f
, 503
t
Occipital protuberance, external,
202
–203, 203
f
, 205
f
, 206
f
,
216
t
Occipital vein, 738–739
f
Occipitofrontalis (epicranius) muscle,
326
f
, 327
f
, 329
f
,
329
t
, 331
f
Occipitomastoid suture, 202, 203
f
,
204
f
, 205
f
Octet rule (rule of eights),
31
Ocular fundus,
551
, 551
f
Oculomotor nerve (cranial nerve III),
444
f
,
493
, 493
f
,
495
t
,
528
, 528
f
extrinsic eye muscles supplied by,
495
t
, 547, 547
f
Oculomotor nuclei, 444, 538
Odontoblast,
861
Odorants, 565
transduction of, 567, 567
f
Odor sensation.
See
Olfaction
Ohm’s law,
396
Oil(s), triglycerides as, 45
Oil (sebaceous) glands, 125, 126
f
,
151
f
,
161
–162, 161
f
, 167
Olecranon/olecranon process, 230
f
,
231
–232, 231
f
Olecranon bursitis, 270
Olecranon fossa,
230
, 230
f
Oleoresins, skin penetrated by, 162
receptors for, 534–535, 534
t
stress response/sympathetic
stimulation and, 616, 617
f
Normal saline, for volume
restoration, 653
Nose, 803–806, 803
f
, 804
f
, 805
t
.
See
also
under Nasal
Nosebleed (epistaxis),
848
Nostrils (nares), 802
f
,
803
, 803
f
, 804
f
Notch (bone marking), 180
t
Notochord,
1076
, 1076
f
, 1077, 1078
f
,
1079
f
Nuchal lines, 203, 203
f
, 206
f
Nuclear envelope/membrane, 63
f
,
87
f
,
92
–93, 92
f
, 96
t
Nuclear lamina, 92, 92
f
Nuclear pores/nuclear pore
complexes, 92
f
,
93
Nucleases,
883
,
895
Nucleic acids,
53
–55, 54
f
, 55
t
.
See also
DNA; RNA
absorption of, 893
f
, 897
digestion of, 893
f
, 895
Nucleolar organizer regions, 93
Nucleoli (nucleolus), 63
f
, 92
f
,
93
, 96
t
Nucleoplasm, 93
Nucleosidases, 893
f
,
895
Nucleoside, 53
Nucleosome(s),
93
, 93
f
Nucleotides/nucleotide bases,
53
, 54
f
,
99,
895
Nucleus (atomic),
25
, 25
f
Nucleus (cell), 62, 63
f
,
91
–96, 92
f
, 93
f
,
95–96
t
division of.
See
Mitosis
Nucleus (neural),
390
, 490
basal.
See
Basal nuclei
cuneatus,
446
, 470
f
gracilis,
446
, 470
f
hypothalamic, 441, 442
f
septal, 449, 449
f
thalamic, 441, 442
f
limbic system and, 449, 449
f
Nucleus accumbens, 418
b
Nucleus pulposus,
219
, 219
f
, 220
f
formation of, 1077, 1079
f
Nursing (breast feeding).
See
Lactation
Nutrient(s),
8
,
907
.
See also
specific
type
absorption of.
See
Absorption
essential,
907
–908
exchanges of among fluid
compartments, 993, 993
f
major,
907
malabsorption of,
898
in plasma, 633
t
transport of, 716, 716
f
tubular reabsorption of, 969–970,
970
f
Nutrient arteries, 178
f
Nutrient foramina,
178
Nutrient pools,
930
, 930
f
Nutrient signals, food intake
regulation and, 940, 940
f
Nutrition, 907–913
burn injury and, 165
case study and, 953
b
developmental aspects of,
948–949
medications affecting, 948
pregnancy and, 948, 1083
Nocturia, 985
Nocturnal enuresis (NE),
988
Nodes of Ranvier (myelin sheath
gaps), 391
f
,
393
Nodule(s), lymphoid (lymphoid
follicles),
755
, 756
f
aggregated (Peyer’s patches), 755,
756
f
,
759
, 760
f
Noise.
See also
Loudness
hearing loss and, 576, 584
Nonaxial movement,
256
, 260
f
Nondeclarative memory, 457, 457
f
Nondisjunction,
1054
,
1107
Nondisplaced fracture, 191
Nonelectrolytes,
991
Nonencapsulated (free) nerve
endings, 151
f
, 154, 163, 395,
485
–486, 487
t
Nongated (leakage) channels, 69,
396
Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma,
763
Non-insulin-dependent (type 2)
diabetes mellitus (NIDDM),
620,
625
b
, 948
Nonkeratinized epithelia, 122
Nonmembranous organelles, 83
Nonmyelinated axons/fibers, 392, 393
action potential conduction
velocity and, 405, 406
f
Nonpolar molecules, 33–
34
, 34
f
Nonpolar tails, of membrane
phospholipids, 45
f
, 47, 64
f
,
65
Non-rapid eye movement (NREM)
sleep,
454
, 454
f
Nonrespiratory air (gas) movements,
823
, 824
t
Nonself antigens,
774
Nonshivering (chemical)
thermogenesis,
947
Nonspecific (innate) defenses,
764
,
765–773, 765
f
, 770
t
, 791
f
helper T cells affecting, 788
internal (cells/chemicals), 764,
765
f
, 766–773, 767
f
, 768
f
, 769
f
,
770
t
, 771
f
, 772
f
, 791
f
surface barriers (skin/mucosae),
162–163, 764, 765–766, 765
f
,
770
t
, 791
f
Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs
(NSAIDs)
peptic ulcers and, 869
prostaglandins and, 47
Nonstriated muscle.
See
Smooth
muscle
Nontraditional inheritance, 1102–
1103
Nonvolatile (fixed) acid,
1006
Noradrenaline.
See
Norepinephrine
Norepinephrine, 414, 415
t
,
525
, 534,
534
t
,
615
, 616, 616
t
,
707
adrenal secretion of, 533, 612
f
,
615
, 616, 616
t
in autonomic versus somatic
nervous system,
525
, 526
f
,
534, 537
blood pressure and,
707
, 707
t
,
709
f
cardiac contractility affected by,
683, 683
f
glomerular filtration affected by,
967–968
heart rate affected by, 684
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