Index
I-37
in smooth muscle contraction,
308
Neurotransmitter receptor region,
407
Neurotropins, 423
Neurulation,
1077
, 1078
f
Neutral fats,
45
, 908.
See also
Triglycerides
Neutralization, by antibodies,
782
,
782
f
Neutralization reaction, 40–
41
Neutron(s),
25
, 25
f
, 27
f
Neutrophils, 128, 128
f
, 137
f
, 634
f
,
641
, 641
f
, 643
f
, 644
t
,
766
.
See
also
Phagocytosis/phagocytes
Nevi, pigmented (moles), 156, 165
Newborn
adjustment to extrauterine life
by, 1087
circulation in, 1080
f
, 1087
digestive system in, 899
first breath by, 841–842, 1087
genetic screening of, 1103–1105,
1104
f
hemolytic disease of,
652
hydrocephalus in, 460–462, 462
f
immune system in, 796
physiological jaundice in, 1088,
1094
skin in, 167
skull in, 244, 244
f
Nexus.
See
Gap junction(s)
NH
3
.
See
Ammonia
NH
4
1
.
See
Ammonium ion
Niacin (vitamin B
3
), 912
t
, 916
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide
(NAD
1
),
916
Nicotine
hypertension and, 711
pregnancy and, 1083
Nicotinic agents, autonomic activity
and, 535
t
Nicotinic receptors, 415
t
,
534
, 534
t
Night blindness, 563, 912
t
Nipple(s),
1041
, 1042
f
Nissl bodies (chromatophilic
substance),
390
, 391
f
Nitric oxide (NO), 81, 416
t
,
417
,
713
blood flow regulation and,
713
,
714
f
in erection/erectile dysfunction,
1027
in platelet plug formation, 646
production of from saliva, 859
Nitric oxide synthase, 417
Nitrogen, 25, 26
t
partial pressure of (P
N2
), 824, 825
t
solubility of, 824
Nitrogen balance,
910
Nitrogen gas, formation of, 33
Nitrogenous wastes, 978,
979
exchanges of among fluid
compartments, 993, 993
f
in plasma, 633
t
NK cells.
See
Natural killer (NK) cells
NMDA (N-methyl-±-aspartate)
receptors
pain activating, 489
synaptic potentiation and, 413
Noble gases, 31
Nociceptors (pain receptors), 154,
484
, 485
t
, 486
t
, 489
in reflex arc, 422, 422
f
, 513,
513
f
, 533, 533
f
organization of (neuronal pools),
421
, 421
f
postsynaptic,
407
, 409
f
presynaptic,
407
, 409
f
processes of, 140, 140
f
,
390
–393,
391
f
, 394
t
regeneration of, 144
responsiveness/excitability and,
5, 6
f
, 400
sensory (afferent),
395
,
395
t
.
See also
Sensory (afferent)
neurons
in reflex arc, 422, 422
f
, 513,
513
f
, 533, 533
f
somatic motor, 286, 286
f
, 287
f
,
311
t
,
468
, 468
f
somatic sensory,
468
, 468
f
synaptic communication and,
407–414, 409
f
visceral (autonomic) motor
(VM),
468
, 468
f
visceral sensory,
468
, 468
f
,
533
,
533
f
Neuronal circuits,
421
, 422
f
sensory integration at level of,
487, 488, 488
f
Neuronal growth cone,
423
, 423
f
Neuronal pathways, 468–473, 469
f
ascending, 468, 468–469, 469
f
,
470
f
, 471
t
descending, 468, 469–473, 469
f
,
472
f
, 473
t
Neuronal pools,
421
, 421
f
, 422
f
Neuropathy,
427
autonomic,
537
peripheral,
523
Neuropeptide(s), 416
t
,
417
in food intake regulation, 939,
940, 940
f
Neuropeptide Y, in food intake
regulation, 939, 940, 940
f
Neuropharmacology,
427
Neurophysiology,
2
, 387, 387
f
Neuroses,
482
Neurotoxin,
427
Neurotransmitter(s), 81, 391,
414–421, 415–416
t
, 418–419
b
,
420
f
, 533–535, 534
t
in autonomic nervous system,
533–535, 534
t
in parasympathetic versus
sympathetic divisions, 529
t
somatic nervous system
compared with, 525, 526
f
in axonal terminals, 391
classification of
by chemical structure, 414–
417, 415–416
t
by function, 415–416
t
,
417–419
direct versus indirect acting,
418–419, 420
f
excitatory and inhibitory, 415–
416
t
, 418, 525
information transfer at chemical
synapse and, 408, 409
f
, 410
in neuromuscular junction, 286,
286
f
, 287
f
, 288, 288
f
receptors for, 420–421, 420
f
,
533–535, 534
f
Neural integrators, axon hillock
membranes as, 413
Neural layer of retina, 550
f
,
551
Neural plate, 475,
475
, 475
f
,
1077
,
1078
f
Neural processing, 421–423, 422
f
Neural stimuli
blood pressure regulation and,
705–707, 705
f
, 706
f
digestion control and, 852, 853
f
food intake regulation and, 939,
940
f
glomerular filtration rate control
and, 967–968, 967
f
for hormone release, 597, 597
f
respiratory control and, 834–835,
834
f
, 835
f
Neural tube, 423,
429
, 429
f
,
475
,
1076
f
,
1077
, 1078
f
, 539
Neurilemma (outer collar of
perinuclear cytoplasm), 392
f
,
393
Neuroblastoma,
427
Neuroblasts,
423
Neurocardiogenic (vasovagal)
syncope,
543
Neuroendocrine organ,
hypothalamus as,
592
Neuroepithelial cells, 423
Neurofibrillary tangles, 464
Neurofibrils/neurofilaments,
390
Neurogenic shock, 717
Neuroglia (glial cells), 140,
388
–390,
389
f
Neurohormones,
598
Neurohypophysis,
598
.
See also
Posterior pituitary gland
Neuroimaging, 474–475
functional MRI (fMRI),
17
b
, 433
f
Neurokinin A, 416
t
Neurolemmocytes (Schwann cells),
389
f
,
390
, 391
f
myelin sheaths formed by, 389
f
,
390, 392–393, 392
f
in PNS nerve fiber regeneration,
491, 492
f
Neurologist,
427
Neuromodulators,
419
Neuromuscular junction(s),
286
,
287
f
, 288, 288
f
, 311
t
,
511
axon terminals at, 286, 287
f
, 288
f
,
293, 294
f
, 511
Neuron(s) (nerve cells),
140
, 140
f
,
390
–395, 391
f
, 394–395
t
association (interneurons),
395
,
395
t
in autonomic versus somatic
nervous system, 525, 526
f
case study and, 427
b
cell body (perikaryon/soma) of,
390
, 391
f
, 394
t
circuit types and,
421
, 422
f
classification of, 393–395, 394–395
t
developmental aspects of, 423, 423
f
electrically coupled, 407
enteric, 533,
855
.
See also
Enteric
nervous system
motor (efferent), 311
t
, 391
f
,
395
,
395
t
.
See also
Motor (efferent)
neurons
in muscle fiber contraction,
286, 286
f
, 287
f
in muscle/muscle fiber
contraction, 286, 286
f
, 287
f
propagation of,
404
, 404
f
, 407
Nerve plexuses,
503
.
See also
specific
type
Nerve roots, spinal.
See
specific type
and
Spinal roots
Nervous system, 6
f
,
386
–427, 388
f
.
See also
specific division and
Nerve cells; Nervous tissue
autonomic,
387
, 388
f
,
524
–543,
525
f
, 526
f
, 527
f
.
See also
Autonomic nervous system
cardiovascular system and, 540
b
,
746
b
case study and, 427
b
central,
387
, 388
f
.
See also
Central
nervous system
developmental aspects of, 423, 423
f
digestive system and, 900
b
divisions of, 387, 388
f
endocrine system and, 540
b
, 626
b
functions/physiology of,
2
, 6
f
,
387, 387
f
in homeostasis, 9, 10
f
hormone release controlled by,
597, 597
f
immune system and, 796
integumentary system and, 168
b
lymphatic system and, 540
b
, 761
b
muscular system and, 311
t
, 314
b
peripheral,
387
, 388
f
.
See also
Peripheral nervous system
reproductive system and, 540
b
,
1059
b
respiratory system and, 843
b
responsiveness/excitability and,
5, 6
f
, 400
skeletal system and, 195
b
, 540
b
thyroid hormone affecting, 607,
607
t
urinary system and, 540
b
, 1013
b
Nervous tissue, 117
f
, 140, 140
f
, 387–
395.
See also
Neuron(s)
case study and, 427
b
developmental aspects of, 423,
423
f
histology of, 387–395
membrane potentials and, 395–
407, 397
f
, 398
f
, 402–403
f
, 404
f
,
405
f
, 406
f
, 412–413
t
neurotransmitters/receptors and,
414–421, 415–416
t
, 418–419
b
,
420
f
supporting cells (neuroglia), 140,
388
–390, 389
f
synapses and,
407
–414, 408
f
Net filtration pressure (NFP),
717
,
718–719
f
, 965
f
,
966
Net osmosis, 70
in digestion, 898
Neural crest, 423,
475
, 475
f
,
539
,
1077
, 1078
f
autonomic nervous system
derived from,
539
, 1077
Neural folds,
475
, 475
f
,
1077
, 1078
f
Neuralgia,
523
Neural groove,
475
, 475
f
,
1077
, 1078
f
Neural integration,
387
, 387
f
,
421
423, 421
f
, 422
f
motor, 511–513, 512
f
sensory, 487–490, 488
f
, 490
f
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