I-36
Index
veins of, 736–737
f
, 738–739
f
,
738
t
Neck of bone
of femur, 238, 239
f
of humerus
anatomical,
228
, 230
f
surgical,
230
, 230
f
of radius, 230
f
, 231
f
of rib, 226, 226
f
Neck of tooth, 860
f
,
861
Necrosis,
115
Negative chronotropic factors, 684
Negative feedback,
9
,
596
in homeostasis,
9
–10, 10
f
hormone secretion and,
596
, 597
f
ovarian function and, 1048–1049,
1048
f
, 1049
Negative inotropic agents, 683
Negative nitrogen balance, 910
Negative selection,
776
, 776
f
Neisseria gonorrhoeae,
1053
Neon, as chemically inert element,
31, 31
f
Neonatal period,
1087
Neonate.
See
Newborn
Neoplasm,
145
b
t.
See also
Cancer
Neostigmine, autonomic activity
and, 535
Nephron(s),
958
–963, 959
f
, 960
f
,
961
f
, 962
f
blood vessels/capillary beds of,
961
f
, 962
cortical,
960
, 961
f
juxtamedullary, 961
f
,
962
osmotic gradient created by,
973, 974–975
f
Nephron loop (loop of Henle), 959
f
,
960
, 961
f
as countercurrent multiplier, 973,
974–975
f
, 976
reabsorptive capability of, 971–
972, 971
t
Nephrotoxin,
988
Nerve(s), 387,
390
,
490
–492, 491
f
,
492
f
cranial, 387, 388
f
,
492
–501, 493
f
,
494–500
t
spinal, 387, 388
f
, 465
f
, 466, 467
f
,
468
, 468
f
,
501
–511, 501
f
, 502
f
Nerve cell(s).
See
Neuron(s)
Nerve cell adhesion molecule
(N-CAM), 423
Nerve conduction studies,
523
Nerve deafness, vestibulocochlear
damage causing, 498
t
Nerve endings
encapsulated,
486
–487, 486
t
.
See
also
specific type
nonencapsulated (free), 151
f
, 154,
163, 395,
485
–486, 487
t
Nerve fascicles,
490
, 491
f
Nerve fibers,
391
, 490, 491
f
.
See also
Axon
classification of, 406–407
regeneration of, 491–492, 492
f
Nerve growth factor, 423,
539
Nerve impulse(s), 24, 395,
400
–407,
402–403
f
, 404
f
, 405
f
, 406
f
,
412–413
t
.
See also
Action
potential
generation of, 391, 400–401,
402–403
f
in primary active transport, 73,
74
f
, 75
f
tubular reabsorption of
sodium and, 969, 970
f
resting membrane potential and,
80, 397, 398
f
in secondary active transport, 73
tubular reabsorption of
nutrients/water/ions and,
969, 970
f
tubular reabsorption of
sodium and, 969, 970
f
Nail(s),
160
, 160
f
Nail bed, 160, 160
f
Nail folds,
160
, 160
f
Nail matrix,
160
, 160
f
Nail plate/nail body, 160, 160
f
Nail root, 160, 160
f
Naive lymphocytes,
776
Narcolepsy,
455
Nares (nostrils), 802
f
,
803
, 803
f
, 804
f
Nasal apertures, posterior (choanae),
803
, 804
f
Nasal bones, 203
f
, 204
f
, 205
f
,
212
,
214
f
,
217
t
, 803, 803
f
Nasal cartilages, 174, 175
f
Nasal cavity,
19
,
213
–215, 214
f
, 802
f
,
803
–806, 804
f
, 805
t
Nasal cilia, 805
Nasal conchae, 215, 565, 566
f
, 804
f
,
805–806
inferior, 203
f
,
212
,
217
t
, 804
f
,
805–806
middle, 203
f
,
210
, 210
f
, 214
f
,
217
t
,
804
f
, 805–806
superior,
210
, 214
f
,
217
t
, 804
f
,
805–806
Nasal glands, 805, 844
Nasal meatuses, 213, 214
f
, 804
f
, 806
Nasal mucosa, 805, 806
autonomic innervation/effects
and, 528
f
, 532
f
, 536
t
Nasal polyps,
848
Nasal septum, 215,
803
,
848
Nasal spine, anterior, 211
f
,
212
, 214
f
Nasal vestibule,
803
, 804
f
Nasolacrimal duct,
546
, 546
f
Nasopharynx, 804
f
,
806
Natriuretic peptide, atrial.
See
Atrial
natriuretic peptide
Natural killer (NK) cells,
766
–767,
770
t
, 789
Naturally acquired immunity
active, 780, 780
f
passive, 780, 780
f
Nausea and vomiting, pregnancy
and, 1083
Navel (umbilicus), 19, 1080
f
Navicular, 241
f
,
242
,
243
t
Near point of vision,
556
Nearsightedness (myopia),
556
, 557
f
Nebulin, 282
Neck
arteries supplying, 726–727
f
,
726–727
t
innervation of, 503–505, 503
f
,
503
t
.
See also
Cervical nerves
muscles of, 326
f
, 327
f
, 329
f
, 331
f
,
336
t
, 337
f
head movement and, 336
t
, 337
f
swallowing control and,
334–335
t
, 335
f
Mylohyoid muscle,
334
t
, 335
f
Myo (prefix),
277
Myoblasts,
312
, 312
f
Myoblast transfer therapy, for
muscular dystrophy, 313
Myocardial infarction (heart attack),
671
cardiac output and, 685
Myocarditis,
691
Myocardium,
661
, 661
f
, 665
f
Myoclonus,
482
Myofascial pain syndrome,
318
Myofibrils,
279
, 310
t
cardiac muscle, 310
t
, 671
skeletal muscle,
279
–282,
280
f
,
282
f
,
283
t
, 284
f
, 310
t
Myofilaments,
136
–137,
281
in skeletal muscle,
280
f
,
281
, 282
f
,
283
t
in smooth muscle, 307, 308
f
Myogenic controls, of blood flow,
713
, 714
f
cerebral flow and, 715
glomerular filtration rate and,
966
, 967
f
Myoglobin,
279
Myogram,
293
, 295
f
Myoid cells,
1020
, 1021
f
Myomesin, 282
Myometrium, 1037
f
,
1038
Myopathy,
318
Myopia (nearsightedness),
556
, 557
f
Myosin, 51
t
,
281
, 282
f
, 311
t
clot retraction and, 649
cross bridge activity and,
281
,
284
f
, 289, 292
f
in excitation-contraction
coupling, 291
f
in sliding filament model, 285
unconventional, 88
Myosin (thick) filaments, 136,
281
in cardiac muscle, 671
in skeletal muscle, 280
f
, 281, 282
f
,
283
t
in sliding filament model, 285
in smooth muscle, 307, 308
f
, 311
t
Myosin heads, 281, 282
f
, 283
t
in cross bridge cycle, 281, 284
f
,
289, 292
f
in sliding filament model, 285
in smooth muscle, 307
Myosin kinase (myosin light chain
kinase),
307
, 308
f
Myosin tail, 281, 282
f
Myotome,
1077
, 1078
f
, 1079
f
Myotonic dystrophy,
318
Myotubes, 312, 312
f
MyPlate,
907
, 907
f
Myringotomy, 572
Mys (prefix),
277
Myxedema, 603
t
,
609
Myxovirus, mumps caused by, 858
N.
See
Nitrogen
Na.
See
Sodium
Na
1
-glucose symport transporter,
75
f
, 897
f
Na
1
-K
1
ATPase,
73
action potential and, 401
carbohydrate absorption and,
896, 897
f
Muscular pump, venous return and,
704
, 704
f
, 705
f
, 709
f
Muscular system, 6
f
, 319–385.
See
also
Muscle(s)/muscle tissue;
Skeletal muscle(s)
actions/interactions of, 319–320,
321
f
autonomic nervous system and,
311
t
, 540
b
cardiovascular system and, 314
b
,
746
b
case study and, 318
b
, 385
b
digestive system and, 314
b
, 900
b
endocrine system and, 314
b
, 626
b
functions of, 6
f
, 277–278
homeostatic imbalances and,
312–315
homeostatic relationships of, 314
b
integumentary system and, 168
b
,
314
b
lymphatic system and, 314
b
, 761
b
mechanics of (fascicle
arrangement/leverage),
322–324, 322
f
, 323–324
f
, 325
f
movement and, 5, 6
f
, 256, 277
naming muscles and, 320–322
nervous system and, 311
t
, 314
b
,
540
b
reproductive system and, 314
b
,
1059
b
respiratory system and, 314
b
, 843
b
skeletal system and, 195
b
, 314
b
lever systems and,
323
–324,
323–324
f
, 325
f
in thermoregulation, 278, 301, 944
thyroid hormone affecting, 607
t
urinary system and, 314
b
, 1013
b
Musculocutaneous nerve, 504
f
, 505
t
,
506
Mutation(s),
115
, 145
b
,
1107
in carcinogenesis, 145
b
, 146
in imprinted genes, 1103
in mitochondrial genes, 1103
Myalgia,
318
Myasthenia gravis, 286, 535, 794
Myelencephalon,
429
, 429
f
, 430
f
Myelinated axons/fibers,
392
, 392
f
action potential conduction
velocity and, 405, 406
f
Myelination, 392–393, 392
f
, 477
in CNS, 393
conduction velocity of action
potential and, 405, 406
f
homeostatic imbalances/multiple
sclerosis and,
405
–406
in PNS, 392–393, 392
f
Myelin sheath(s),
392
, 392
f
conduction velocity of action
potential and, 405, 406
f
neuroglia forming, 389
f
, 390,
392–393, 392
f
Myelin sheath gaps (nodes of
Ranvier), 391
f
,
393
Myelitis,
482
Myeloblasts,
642
, 643
f
Myelocytes,
642
, 643
f
Myelogram,
482
Myeloid leukemia, 645
Myeloid stem cells,
636
,
642
, 643
f
Myelomeningocele, 476, 476
f
Myeloproliferative disorder,
657
Myenteric nerve plexus, 854
f
,
855
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