Index
I-35
Muscle-bound, 305
Muscle cells/fibers,
138
, 138
f
,
277
,
310
t
.
See also
Cardiac muscle
cells; Skeletal muscle fibers/
cells; Smooth muscle fibers/
cells
contraction of.
See
Muscle
contraction
development of, 312–315, 312
f
types/classification of, 303–304,
303
f
, 303
t
Muscle contraction,
285
, 311
t
cardiac muscle, 311
t
, 671–673, 673
f
heat production during, 278, 301,
944
movement and, 5, 277
muscle fatigue and, 295,
300
–301
skeletal muscle, 277, 285–293,
285
, 285
f
, 286
f
, 287
f
, 288
f
,
293–298, 294
f
, 295
f
, 296
f
,
297
f
, 311
t
.
See also
Skeletal
muscle(s)/skeletal muscle
tissue, contraction of
smooth muscle, 307–309, 308
f
,
311
t
Muscle cramps, heat, 945
Muscle fascicles,
278
, 279
f
,
283
t
arrangement of, 322–323, 322
f
naming muscles and, 320
Muscle fatigue, 295,
300
–301
Muscle fibers/cells.
See
Muscle cells/
fibers
Muscle kinase, in muscle fiber
formation, 311
Muscle metabolism, 298–301, 299
f
,
300
f
glycogenolysis and, 933, 934
f
Muscle spasm,
318
Muscle spindle, 486
t
,
487
, 514, 514
f
,
515
f
, 516
f
adjusting sensitivity of, 517
Muscle strain,
318
Muscle stretch
cardiac muscle contraction and,
311
t
, 682
skeletal muscle contraction and,
301
f
, 302, 302
f
, 311
t
smooth muscle contraction and,
309, 311
t
Muscle tension,
293
skeletal muscle contraction and,
293
smooth muscle contraction and,
309
Muscle tone,
298
joint stability and, 255, 277
smooth muscle, 308
Muscle twitch,
293
–294, 295
f
Muscular (distributing) arteries, 695
f
,
696
, 696
t
Muscular dystrophy,
312
–315
Muscularis externa
of alimentary canal, 854
f
,
855
of esophagus, 862
f
, 863
of small intestine, 876
f
, 877
of stomach, 865
f
, 866, 867
f
of ureter, 979, 980
f
of vagina, 1040
Muscularis mucosae, of alimentary
canal mucosa, 854
f
,
855
in small intestine, 876
f
in stomach, 867
f
of large intestine, 887–888
nasal, 805, 806
autonomic innervation/effects
and, 528
f
, 532
f
, 536
t
of pharynx, 804
f
respiratory,
805
of stomach, 866, 867, 867
f
tracheal,
809
, 810
f
of ureters, 979, 980
f
vaginal, 1040
Mucous neck cells,
866
, 867
f
Mucus, 124,
858
in body defense, 770
t
cervical glands producing, 1038,
1049, 1051
in cystic fibrosis, 842
duodenal glands secreting, 877
in gastric mucosal barrier, 867
mucosa of alimentary canal
producing, 855
mucous neck cells producing
(acidic), 866
nasal glands producing, 805
salivary glands producing,
858
submucosa of trachea producing,
809
Müllerian (paramesonephric) ducts,
1055
, 1056
f
Multiaxial movement,
256
, 261
f
Multicellular glands, 124
exocrine,
124
–125, 126
f
Multimodal association areas, 434
f
,
436
–437
Multineuronal pathways, 469,
471–
473
, 473
t
Multinucleate cells,
91
Multipennate fascicle pattern/
muscles, 322
f
, 323
Multiple-allele inheritance,
1100
, 1100
t
Multiple electrolyte solution, for
volume restoration, 653
Multiple motor unit summation
(recruitment),
296
, 296
f
, 304
Multiple sclerosis,
405
–406, 794
Multipolar neurons,
393
, 394–395
t
Multi unit smooth muscle,
309
Mumps, 858
Murmurs, heart,
679
Muscarinic agents, autonomic
activity and, 535, 535
t
Muscarinic receptors, 415
t
,
534
, 534
t
Muscle(s)/muscle tissue, 117
f
,
136
–138, 138–139
f
, 276–318,
283
t
.
See also
specific type
and
Muscular system; Skeletal
muscle(s)
cardiac,
138
, 139
f
,
277
, 310–311
t
developmental aspects of,
312–315, 312
f
, 313
b
functions of, 277–278
homeostatic imbalances and,
312–315
homeostatic relationships of, 314
b
skeletal,
138
, 138
f
,
277
,
278
–305,
283
t
, 310–311
t
smooth,
138
, 139
f
,
277
, 305–309,
310–311
t
special characteristics of, 277
types of, 277
Muscle atrophy, disuse causing, 305
Muscle attachments, 278–279
naming muscles and, 320
Motor (efferent) neurons, 293, 294
f
,
391
f
,
395
,
395
t
,
514
, 515
f
in autonomic versus somatic
nervous system, 525, 526
f
in muscle contraction, 286, 286
f
,
287
f
, 311
t
stimulus frequency changes
and, 294–295, 295
f
, 301–
302, 301
f
stimulus strength changes
and, 296, 296
f
in neuromuscular junction, 286,
287
f
in reflex arc, 422, 422
f
, 513, 513
f
,
533, 533
f
somatic (SM), 286, 286
f
, 287
f
,
311
t
,
468
, 468
f
upper and lower, 469, 472
f
, 512
visceral (autonomic),
468
, 468
f
Motor nuclei, dorsal, 528
Motor output,
387
, 387
f
Motor (descending) pathways/tracts,
468, 469–473, 469
f
, 472
f
, 473
t
Motor proteins/molecules,
88
–89,
89
f
, 392
in cilia/flagella, 90, 90
f
Motor speech area (Broca’s area),
433
–435, 434
f
Motor unit(s),
293
, 294
f
force of contraction affected by
number of, 301, 301
f
Mountain sickness, acute, 838
Mouth (oral cavity),
19
, 850
f
,
856
861, 856
f
, 885
t
.
See also
specific
structure
development of, 898, 899
f
digestive processes occurring in,
851
f
, 863–864, 864
f
, 885
t
, 892,
893
f
Movement,
5
.
See also
specific type
cerebellar processing and,
447–448
muscular system and, 5, 6
f
, 256,
277
skeletal system/bones and, 5, 6
f
,
176
at synovial joints, 9
f
, 256–258,
256–257
f
M (mitotic) phase of cell cycle, 96,
97
f
, 98–99.
See also
Cell
division
M-phase promoting factor (MPF),
cell division control and,
99
mRNA.
See
Messenger RNA
Mucin,
124
, 765, 859
Mucosa(e),
141
.
See also
Mucous
membranes
Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue
(MALT),
759
, 854
f
,
855
, 876
f
Mucosal barrier,
867
–869
Mucosal iron barrier, 898
Mucous cells,
124
,
858
in salivary glands,
858
, 858
f
in stomach, 866, 867
f
Mucous membranes (mucosae),
141
–142, 141
f
of alimentary canal, 854
f
,
855
of anal canal, 888
in body defense, 764, 765–766,
765
f
, 770
t
of esophagus, 862
f
, 863
Mitral (bicuspid) valve,
662
, 665
f
,
666
f
Mitral valve prolapse,
690
–691
Mittelschmerz, 1047
Mixed nerves,
490
Mixture(s),
29
–30, 29
f
compounds differentiated from,
30
M lines, 280
f
,
281
, 284
f
, 285, 285
f
Modiolus,
573
, 574
f
Molarity,
29
pH scale and, 40
Molars,
860
, 860
f
Mole (concentration unit),
29
–30
Mole(s) (skin), 156, 165
Molecular biology, 2
Molecular chaperones,
50
–51, 51
t
Molecular formula,
36
Molecular mimicry, in diabetes
mellitus, 624
b
Molecular weight,
29
–30
Molecule(s), 3, 4
f
,
28
Molybdenum, 26
t
, 915
t
Monoblasts, 643
f
,
644
Monoclonal antibodies,
783
Monocytes, 634
f
, 641
f
,
642
, 643
f
, 644,
644
t
,
766
macrophages derived from,
642
,
643
f
,
766
, 769
Monoglycerides, 893
f
,
895
, 895
f
, 896
Monohydrogen phosphate, 1008,
1008
f
Monoiodotyrosine (MIT/T
1
), 608
f
,
609
Monomer(s),
42
, 42
f
, 44
f
antibody,
781
, 781
f
in digestion, 892
Mononucleosis, 645,
763
Monosaccharides,
43
, 44
f
,
892
, 908
absorption of, 896, 897
f
Monospermy,
1066
Monosynaptic reflex,
513
,
515
Monounsaturated fats,
46
Mons pubis, 1035
f
, 1040
f
,
1041
Morbid obesity, 942
b
Morning-a±er pill, 1090
b
, 1091
b
Morning sickness, 1083
Morula,
1067
, 1071
f
Motilin, 868
t
, 886, 886
t
Motility, intestinal.
See
Intestinal
motility
Motion sickness,
583
Motor areas, 432,
433
–435, 434
f
, 435
f
Motor control, levels of, 511–513,
512
f
Motor cortex, primary (somatic),
433
, 434
f
, 435, 435
f
Motor (efferent) division of
peripheral nervous system,
387
, 388
f
Motor endings,
511
Motor fibers
somatic, 387, 388
f
, 490
visceral, 490
Motor homunculus,
433
, 435
f
Motor integration, 511–513, 512
f
Motor memory,
457
Motor molecules/proteins,
88
–89,
89
f
, 392
in cilia/flagella, 90, 90
f
Motor (efferent) nerves, 293, 294
f
,
490
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