I-34
Index
Middle ear (tympanic cavity),
20
,
208, 571
f
,
572
, 572
f
Middle meningeal artery, 210, 726
t
Middle nasal conchae, 203
f
,
210
, 210
f
,
214
f
,
217
t
, 804
f
, 805–806
Middle nasal meatus, 213, 214
f
, 804
f
Middle phalanx
finger, 232
f
, 233
t
, 234
toe, 241
f
, 243
t
Middle pharyngeal constrictor
muscle, 335
f
,
335
t
Middle scalene muscle, 336
t
, 337
f
Middle suprarenal arteries, 730
f
, 732
f
,
732
t
Middle thyroid vein, 738–739
f
Middle trunk, brachial plexus, 504
f
,
505
Midpalmar muscles, 360
t
, 361
f
, 362
t
Midpiece of sperm,
1032
, 1032
f
Midsagittal (median) plane/section,
14
, 15
f
Migrating motor complex (MMC),
886
, 886
t
Milia, 167
Milk ejection, oxytocin and, 599,
602
t
, 1088, 1088
f
Milk intolerance, 894
Milk production, prolactin and, 603
t
,
605, 606, 1088–1089, 1088
f
Milk teeth (deciduous/primary
dentition),
859
, 860
f
Milliequivalents per liter,
992
Milligrams per deciliter, 29
Millimole(s), 30
Milliosmol, 973
milliequivalent per liter and, 992
Millivolt(s), 396
Mineral(s), 8,
913
, 915
t
dietary,
913
, 915
t
storage of in bone, 177
storage of in liver, 937
t
Mineralocorticoids, 612,
612
–614,
616
t
, 617
f
Mineral salts, in bone tissue, 183
Minipill, for contraception, 1090
b
Minivalves, lymphatic capillary, 752,
752
f
Minor calyces,
956
, 957
f
Minor (intrinsic) salivary glands,
858
Minoxidil, 159
Minute ventilation,
823
, 823
t
Mitochondria, 63
f
,
83
, 83
f
, 94
t
ATP production in matrix of,
917, 917
f
in cardiac muscle, 671, 672
f
free radicals in, 111
Mitochondrial DNA/genes, 83, 83
f
,
1103
Mitochondrial (extranuclear)
inheritance, 1103
Mitochondrial theory of aging, 111
Mitosis, 97
f
,
98
, 100–101
f
, 1027,
1028
f
meiosis compared with, 1027–
1029, 1028
f
in oogenesis, 1043, 1044
f
in spermatogenesis, 1029, 1031
f
Mitotic (M) phase of cell cycle,
96, 97
f
, 98–99.
See also
Cell
division
Mitotic spindle, 100
f
Mitral cells, olfactory, 566
f
,
567
Metacarpal veins, 740
f
Metacarpophalangeal joint (knuckle),
234, 254
t
Metacarpus (palm of hand),
234
bones of (metacarpals), 200
f
, 232
f
,
233
t
,
234
muscles of, 354
t
, 360–362
t
, 361
f
Metalloproteinases, matrix, 167
Metanephros,
983
, 984
f
, 1056
f
Metaphase
in meiosis, 1028
f
, 1029, 1030
f
in mitosis, 97
f
,
98
, 101
f
, 1028
f
Metaphase plate, 101
f
Metaphysis, 178
Metarteriole, 695
f
,
698
, 698
f
Metastasis,
145
b
Metastatic calcification, 611
Metatarsal arteries
dorsal, 734–735
f
,
734
t
plantar, 734
f
,
735
t
Metatarsals, 200
f
, 241
f
,
242
,
243
t
Metatarsal veins, dorsal, 737
f
, 744
f
Metatarsophalangeal joints, 255
t
Metatarsus, bones of (metatarsals),
200
f
, 241
f
,
242
,
243
t
Metencephalon,
429
, 429
f
, 430
f
Methamphetamine abuse, 418
b
Methane gas, formation of, 32–33, 33
f
Mg.
See
Magnesium
MHC proteins,
774
, 784–786, 785
f
,
786
t
positive/negative selection and,
776, 776
f
transplantation and, 790
MHC restriction, 785–786
Micelles, 895
f
,
896
Microcephaly,
482
Microcirculation,
698
, 698
f
Microcytes,
639
Microfilaments,
87
–88, 88
f
, 89
f
, 95
t
Microglial cells,
389
, 389
f
MicroRNAs (miRNAs), 55, 104,
105
,
1102
Microscopic anatomy,
2
Microscopy, preparing tissue for,
117–118.
See also
Histology
Microtubule(s), 63
f
,
88
–89, 88
f
, 89
f
,
95
t
, 100
f
in cilia, 90, 90
f
kinetochore, 100
f
polar, 100
f
Microtubule organizing center, 89
Microvilli, 67
f
,
91
, 91
f
, 95
t
,
118
,
877
in proximal convoluted tubule,
959
f
, 960, 960
f
in small intestine, 876
f
,
877
, 877
f
Micturition, 979,
982
, 983
f
, 984–985
Micturition center, pontine, 982, 983
f
Midbrain (mesencephalon),
429
,
430
f
, 440
f
,
443
–445, 443
f
,
444–445
f
, 451
t
development of,
429
, 429
f
, 430
f
Midbrain flexure, 429, 430
f
Middle cardiac vein,
670
, 670
f
Middle cerebellar peduncles, 444
f
,
445, 445
f
,
447
, 448
f
Middle cerebral arteries, 726
f
,
726
t
,
727
f
Middle cervical ganglion,
531
, 532
f
Middle colic artery, 730
f
,
732
t
, 733
f
Middle cranial fossa, 201, 201
f
, 207
f
,
208
Mesovarium,
1036
, 1037
f
Messenger RNA (mRNA), 55,
102
,
102
f
, 109
f
processing of, 102
f
, 103–104
in transcription, 102–104, 103
f
in translation, 105, 106–107
f
Messenger RNA complex proteins,
104
Metabolic acidosis, 927,
1010
, 1010
t
,
1011
b
respiratory compensations and,
1011–1012
Metabolic alkalosis,
1010
, 1010
t
,
1011
b
respiratory compensations and,
1011–1012
Metabolic controls, of blood flow,
713, 714
f
, 715
Metabolic rate,
941
–944
aging and, 941, 948
heat production and, 941–944,
946–947
of neurons, 390
thyroid hormone/thyroxine
affecting, 607, 607
t
,
941
Metabolic syndrome, obesity and,
943
b
Metabolic water (water of oxidation),
994
Metabolism,
5
, 6
f
, 7
f
,
913
–938.
See
also
specific aspect
absorptive state and, 931, 931–
933, 931
f
, 932
f
anabolism and catabolism,
913
914, 914
f
ATP synthesis, 916–917, 916
f
,
917
f
autonomic effects and, 536
t
, 537
case study and, 953
b
developmental aspects of,
948–949
hormone influences and, 932–
933, 932
f
, 933–935, 935
f
, 936
t
growth hormone, 602–603,
604
f
inborn errors of, 948
liver in, 931
f
, 934
f
, 935–938, 937
t
absorptive state and, 931
f
, 932
postabsorptive state and, 933,
934, 934
f
muscle, 298–301, 299
f
, 300
f
glycogenolysis and, 933, 934
f
nutrient.
See also
specific nutrient
oxidation-reduction reactions/
coenzymes and,
36
–37,
914
–916
postabsorptive state and, 931,
933–935, 934
f
pregnancy affecting, 1083
steady state and, 930–931, 930
f
thermoregulation and, 941–944,
946–947
thyroid hormone/thyroxine
affecting, 607, 607
t
, 936
t
,
941
Metabotropic (G protein–linked)
receptors,
81
, 82
f
,
420
–421,
420
f
in smell transduction, 567, 567
f
Metacarpal(s), 200
f
, 232
f
,
233
t
,
234
muscles controlling movement of,
354
t
, 360–362
t
, 361
f
Metacarpal arteries, 728
f
,
728
t
Menisci (articular discs),
253
of knee,
262
–263, 262–263
f
injuries of, 264, 264
f
, 269, 269
f
of temporomandibular joint, 267,
268
f
Menix,
459
.
See also
Meninges
Menopause,
1058
Menses,
1049
, 1050
f
blood/iron loss and, 898
Menstrual (uterine) cycle,
1049
1051, 1050
f
Menstrual phase of uterine
(menstrual) cycle, 1049, 1050
f
Menstruation,
1049
, 1050
f
blood/iron loss and, 898
Mental foramen/foramina, 203
f
, 204
f
,
211
, 211
f
,
217
t
Mental functioning.
See
Cognition/
cognitive function
Mentalis muscle,
330
t
, 331
f
Mercury salts, skin penetrated by, 162
Merkel (tactile) cells,
152
, 153
f
, 486
Merkel (tactile) discs, 152, 163, 485
t
,
486
Merocrine glands,
125
, 126
f
apocrine sweat glands,
161
eccrine sweat glands, 151
f
,
160
161, 161
f
Mesangial cells
extraglomerular, 962
f
, 963
glomerular, 962
f
, 965
Mesencephalon (midbrain),
429
,
430
f
, 440
f
,
443
–445, 443
f
,
444–445
f
, 451
t
development of,
429
, 429
f
, 430
f
Mesenchymal cells, 129
in intramembranous ossification,
185, 185
f
Mesenchymal stem cell regeneration,
in joint therapy, 271
b
Mesenchyme, 127,
129
mesoderm as, 1076
Mesenteric arteries
inferior, 725
f
, 730
f
, 732
f
,
732
t
,
733
f
superior, 725
f
, 730
f
, 731
f
, 732
f
,
732
t
, 733
f
, 888
f
Mesenteric ganglia/plexuses, inferior
and superior, 529,
531
, 532
f
Mesenteric veins
inferior, 737
f
, 742–743
f
,
742
t
superior, 737
f
, 742–743
f
,
742
t
Mesentery (mesenteries),
852
–853,
853
f
, 854
f
, 889
f
Mesocolons,
887
, 888
f
, 889
f
Mesoderm,
144
, 144
f
, 1073
f
, 1075
f
,
1076
differentiation of, 1076
f
, 1077–
1081, 1078
f
, 1079
f
, 1080
f
intermediate,
1077
, 1078
f
, 1079
f
lateral plate,
1077
, 1078
f
, 1079
f
somatic, 1077, 1079
f
splanchnic, 1077, 1079
f
Mesometrium, 1037
f
,
1038
Mesonephric (Wolffian) ducts
in gonadal development,
1055
,
1056
f
in kidney development,
983
, 984
f
Mesonephros,
983
, 984
f
, 1056
f
Mesosalpinx,
1037
, 1037
f
Mesothelium,
120
in visceral peritoneum, 854
f
, 855
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