Index
I-33
permeability of,
68
.
See also
Membrane transport
action potential and, 400, 401,
402–403
f
diffusion and osmosis and,
70–71, 70
f
resting membrane potential
and, 79–80, 79
f
, 397, 398
f
plasma.
See
Plasma membrane
serous (serosa),
18
–19, 19
f
,
141
f
,
142
.
See also
Serous
membranes
synovial,
252
, 252
f
Membrane attack complex (MAC),
772
–773, 772
f
Membrane bones,
183
Membrane-bound ribosomes, 84
Membrane lipids, 64–65, 64
f
Membrane potentials,
79
, 395–407,
412–413
t
electricity principles and, 395–
397, 396
f
resting,
79
–80, 79
f
,
397
, 397
f
,
398
f
in cardiac muscle cells, 674
as signals, 397–407, 399
f
,
402–403
f
, 404
f
, 405
f
, 406
f
,
412–413
t
.
See also
Action
potential; Graded potentials
Membrane proteins, 64
f
, 65
in exocytosis, 77, 77
f
in receptor-mediated endocytosis,
76, 76
f
as receptors, 65,
81
, 82
f
Membrane receptors, 65,
81
, 82
f
in hormone mechanism of action,
593, 593–595, 594
f
Membrane transport, 67–79, 68
f
active,
68
, 72–79, 74
f
, 75
f
, 76
f
, 77
f
,
78
t
.
See also
Active processes/
transport
passive, 68–72, 68
f
, 69
f
, 70
f
, 71
f
,
72
t
.
See also
Passive processes/
transport
Membranous (intermediate part)
urethra,
981
, 981
f
, 1019
f
,
1023
f
, 1024
Membranous labyrinth,
573
, 573
f
Membranous organelles, 83
Memory,
456
–458, 456
f
, 457
f
immunological, 773,
779
–780,
779
f
prefrontal cortex and, 434
f
, 437,
457
f
, 458
Memory cells,
777
,
779
, 792
t
B cells, 777, 778
f
,
779
, 791
f
T cells, 777, 784, 785
f
, 787
f
, 791
f
Memory consolidation,
456
Memory loss, in Alzheimer’s disease,
458, 463
Menarche,
1047
Mendel, Gregor, 1095
Ménière’s syndrome,
584
Meningeal artery, middle, 210, 726
t
Meningeal branch,
503
Meningeal layer of dura mater, 459,
459
f
Meninges
brain,
459
–460, 459
f
, 460
f
spinal, 464, 465
f
, 466
f
, 467
f
Meningitis, 460
Meningocele, 476
Medullary (marrow) cavity, 178,
178
f
, 179
formation of, 184, 184
f
Medullary chromaffin cells,
615
, 616
Medullary cords, lymph node,
755
,
756
f
Medullary osmotic gradient,
973
,
974–975
f
urea recycling and, 976, 977
f
Medullary (renal) pyramids,
956
,
957
f
Medullary respiratory centers, 447,
834, 834
f
, 835
f
respiratory rate/rhythm affected
by, 835–838, 835
f
, 836
f
, 1006
Medullary (lymph) sinuses,
755
, 755
f
,
756
f
Megakaryoblasts,
645
, 645
f
Megakaryocytes,
645
, 645
f
.
See also
Platelet(s)
Meibomian (tarsal) glands, 545
f
,
546
Meiosis, 98,
1027
–1029, 1028
f
, 1030
f
,
1044
f
chromosome segregation in,
1097
–1098, 1097
f
fertilization and, 1044
f
, 1045,
1066–1067, 1070
f
mitosis compared with, 1027–
1029, 1028
f
in oogenesis, 1043, 1044, 1044
f
,
1045
in spermatogenesis, 1029, 1031
f
,
1045
Meiosis I, 1028
f
,
1029
, 1030
f
, 1031
f
,
1044–1045, 1044
f
chromosome segregation in,
1097
–1098, 1097
f
crossover and genetic
recombination and, 1028
f
,
1029
, 1030
f
,
1098
, 1098
f
Meiosis II, 1028
f
,
1029
, 1030
f
, 1031
f
,
1044
f
fertilization and, 1044
f
, 1045,
1066–1067, 1070
f
Meissner’s (tactile) corpuscles, 154,
163, 486
t
,
487
Melanin,
152
, 153
f
,
156
protective function of, 152, 156,
162
skin color and, 156
Melanocytes,
152
, 153
f
, 156
hair pigment made by, 157, 158
f
Melanoma,
164
–165, 164
f
Melanopsin, 564
Melanosomes, 152, 156
Melatonin, 442,
617
–618
Memantine, for Alzheimer’s disease,
464
Membrane(s).
See also
specific type
basement,
118
body cavity, 18, 19
f
, 141
f
, 142
of bone, 178–179, 178
f
boundary maintenance and, 5,
118
cell.
See
Plasma membrane
covering and lining, 118,
140–142, 141
f
cutaneous,
140
, 141
f
.
See also
Skin
mucous (mucosa),
141
–142, 141
f
.
See also
Mucous membranes
nuclear, 63
f
, 87
f
,
92
–93, 92
f
, 96
t
Medial cords, brachial plexus, 504
f
,
505
, 505
t
Medial cuneiform bone, 241
f
,
242
,
243
t
Medial epicondyle
of femur,
238
, 239
f
of humerus,
230
, 230
f
Medial geniculate bodies/nuclei, 441,
442
f
,
579
, 579
f
Medial lemniscus,
446
, 469, 470
f
Medial longitudinal arch of foot,
242
,
242
f
Medial malleolus, 240
f
,
241
Medial meniscus of knee, 262–263
f
,
264, 264
f
Medial muscles/muscle
compartment, of hip and
thigh, 364
f
, 365
t
, 380
t
, 381
f
Medial (large cell) nuclear group,
450
Medial patellar retinaculum, 262
f
,
263
Medial plantar artery, 734–735
f
,
735
t
Medial plantar nerve,
509
, 509
t
Medial plantar vein,
744
t
Medial pterygoid muscle,
332
t
, 333
f
Medial rectus muscle,
547
, 547
f
Medial reticulospinal tract, 469
f
, 473
t
Medial rotation, 257
f
, 258
of lower limb, 380
t
, 381
f
of upper limb, 358
t
, 359
f
Medial supracondylar line,
238
, 239
f
Medial supracondylar ridge,
230
, 230
f
Medial umbilical ligaments, 1080
f
,
1087
Median antebrachial vein, 740–741
f
,
740
t
Median aperture,
430
, 431
f
Median cubital vein, 737
f
, 740–741
f
,
740
t
Median nerve, 354
t
, 504
f
, 505
t
,
506
in carpal tunnel syndrome, 234,
506
Median palatine suture, 206
f
, 212,
217
t
Median (midsagittal) plane/section,
14
, 15
f
Median sacral artery, 730
f
, 732
f
,
732
t
Median sacral crest,
224
, 224
f
Mediastinal arteries,
729
t
Mediastinum,
14
, 18
f
,
659
heart in,
659
, 660
f
Mediators, chemical, inflammatory,
767, 768
f
, 770
t
Medical imaging, 16–17
b
Medications, skin penetrated by, 162
Medulla
adrenal.
See
Adrenal medulla
hair, 157, 158
f
lymph node,
755
, 756
f
ovarian, 1036, 1036
f
renal,
956
, 957
f
, 959
f
Medulla oblongata, 429, 430
f
, 440
f
,
443
f
, 444–445
f
,
445
–447, 451
t
blood pressure regulation and,
707
cardiovascular center in, 447,
605
development of, 429, 429
f
, 430
f
respiratory centers in, 447, 834,
834
f
, 835
f
respiratory rate/rhythm
affected by, 835–838, 835
f
,
836
f
, 1006
Mass, 24
Masseter muscle, 326
f
, 331
f
,
332
t
,
333
f
Mass movements/peristalsis, 885
t
,
890
Mass number,
27
Mast cells,
128
, 128
f
, 642,
767
in immediate hypersensitivity,
795, 795
f
Mastectomy,
1043
Mastication (chewing), 851, 851
f
,
859,
863
, 885
t
muscles of, 332
t
, 333
f
Mastoid air cells,
209
, 572
Mastoid antrum,
572
Mastoid fontanelle, 244
f
Mastoiditis, 209
Mastoid process, 203
f
, 204
f
, 206
f
,
208
,
208
f
,
216
t
Maternal antibodies, passive
immunity and, 780, 780
f
Maternal chromosome, 1027
Matrix
blood (plasma), 129
t
, 136, 137
f
bone, 136, 137
f
cartilage, 129
t
, 132, 135
f
, 174
centrosome, 63
f
, 89, 89
f
extracellular, 110,
127
, 128
f
, 129
t
,
174
hair, 158
f
,
159
mitochondrial, 83, 83
f
, 917, 917
f
nail,
160
, 160
f
Matrix metalloproteinases, 167
Matter,
24
in combination (molecules/
mixtures), 28–30, 29
f
composition of, 25–28, 25
f
, 26
t
,
27
f
living.
See
Biochemistry
states of, 24
Maxillary artery, 726
f
, 727
f
Maxillary bones/maxilla(e), 203
f
,
204
f
, 205
f
, 206
f
, 211
f
,
212
,
214
f
,
217
t
, 803, 803
f
Maxillary division of trigeminal nerve
(cranial nerve V
2
),
496
t
Maxillary sinuses,
212
, 215
f
Maximal stimulus,
296
Mean arterial pressure,
703
, 703
f
,
709
f
Meatus (bone marking), 180
t
Mechanical advantage,
323
, 323
f
Mechanical breakdown (food),
851
852, 851
f
, 885
t
Mechanical disadvantage,
323
, 324
f
Mechanical energy,
24
Mechanically gated channel(s),
396
Mechanical stress, bone remodeling
and, 188, 189
f
Mechanoreceptors,
484
, 485
t
, 486
t
lactation and, 1088, 1088
f
Meconium,
1088
Medial (term), 12
t
Medial (vertebral) border of scapula,
228, 229
f
Medial circumflex femoral artery,
734–735
f
,
734
t
Medial commissure/canthus,
545
,
545
f
Medial condyle
of femur,
238
, 239
f
of tibia,
239
–241, 240
f
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