Index
I-31
Lobule(s)
of ear (earlobes),
570
, 571
f
of liver,
878
, 880
f
of lung, 814
f
,
815
mammary gland,
1041
, 1042
f
of testis, 1020, 1021
f
thymic, 758, 758
f
Lockjaw, 318
Locus (gene), 1096
Long bones,
175
, 176
f
, 177–179, 178
f
endochondral ossification in, 183,
183
–185, 184
f
postnatal growth of, 185–187,
186
f
Longissimus capitis/cervicis/thoracis
muscles,
338
t
, 339
f
Longitudinal arches of foot,
242
, 242
f
Longitudinal fissure,
431
, 432
f
Longitudinal layer of smooth muscle,
305, 306
f
in alimentary canal muscularis,
854
f
, 855
in stomach muscularis, 865
f
, 867
f
Longitudinal ligaments,
219
, 219
f
Long reflexes, 852, 853
f
, 886, 886
t
Long-term memory (LTM),
456
, 456
f
Long-term potentiation (LTP), 413,
458
Long thoracic nerve, 504
f
, 505
t
Loop diuretics, 976
Loop of Henle.
See
Nephron loop
Loose connective tissue, 129
t
,
130
,
131–132
f
Lordosis, 219, 219
f
, 245, 1082
Loudness,
576
, 576
f
detection of, 579
hearing loss and, 576, 584
Lou Gehrig’s disease (amyotrophic
lateral sclerosis/ALS), 474
Low-density lipoproteins (LDLs),
700
b
,
936
, 936
f
atherosclerosis and, 700
b
,
937–938
recommended blood levels of,
937–938
Lower limbs.
See also
Foot; Leg;
±igh
arteries of, 725
f
, 734–735
f
,
734–735
t
bones of, 200
f
, 238–243, 239
f
,
240
f
, 241
f
, 242
f
, 243
t
innervation of, 501
f
,
506
–509,
507
f
, 507
t
, 508
f
, 509
t
veins of, 736–737
f
, 744
f
, 744
t
Lower motor neurons, 469, 472
f
, 512
Lower trunk, brachial plexus, 504
f
,
505
Lumbar arteries, 730
f
, 732
f
,
732
t
Lumbar curvature of spine,
218
, 218
f
,
244
abnormal, 219, 219
f
Lumbar enlargement, 465
f
,
466
, 501
f
Lumbar fascia, 343
f
, 367
f
Lumbar nerves, 465
f
, 501, 501
f
Lumbar plexus, 501
f
,
506
, 507
f
, 507
t
Lumbar puncture/tap,
464–466
, 466
f
Lumbar regions,
19
, 20
f
Lumbar splanchnic nerves,
531
, 532
f
Lumbar trunks,
753
, 753
f
Lumbar veins, 736
f
,
740
t
, 742–743
f
,
742
t
Lumbar vertebrae,
218
, 218
f
, 222,
222
f
, 223
t
lipoprotein,
896
, 932
pancreatic,
883
, 893
f
, 895, 895
f
Lipid(s),
43
–47, 45
f
, 46
t
.
See also
Fat(s)/lipid(s)
as neurotransmitters, 416
t
, 417
in plasma membrane, 64–65, 64
f
Lipid bilayer, plasma membrane,
63, 64
f
Lipidemia, 653
diabetic, 620, 621
t
, 624
b
Lipid ra²s, 63,
65
caveolae associated with, 76
Lipid-soluble hormones, 593
Lipid-soluble substances, skin
penetrated by, 162
Lipofuscin (aging pigment), 390
Lipogenesis,
926
–927, 927
f
, 929
t
Lipolysis,
927
, 927
f
, 929
t
, 933, 934
f
Lipoprotein(s), 46
t
,
936
–937, 936
f
.
See also specific type
in atherosclerosis, 700
b
, 937–938
Lipoprotein (a), 700
b
Lipoprotein lipase,
896
, 932
Liposomes,
115
, 164
Liposuction, 943
b
Liquid(s), 24
Lithium, atomic structure of, 27, 27
f
Lithotripsy
for gallstones, 882
shock wave, for renal calculi, 980
Liver, 875
f
,
878
–882, 879
f
, 880
f
.
See
also
under Hepatic
autonomic innervation/effects
and, 527
f
, 528
f
, 532
f
, 536
t
bile composition and,
881
–882
bleeding disorders and, 650
digestive function of, 878, 885
t
glycogenolysis in, 933, 934
f
lipid transport to, 936–937
lipolysis in, 927, 933, 934
f
metabolic functions of, 931
f
, 934
f
,
935–938, 937
t
absorptive state and, 931
f
, 932
cholesterol regulation and,
927, 935–938, 936
f
postabsorptive state and, 933,
934, 934
f
round ligament of (ligamentum
teres),
878
, 879
f
, 1080
f
,
1087
Liver cells (hepatocytes),
878
–881,
880
f
metabolic functions of, 935–938,
937
t
Liver lobules,
878
, 880
f
Liver sinusoids,
878
, 880
f
Load (bone), growth/remodeling and,
188–189, 189
f
Load (muscle),
293
, 304, 304
f
contraction duration/velocity
affected by, 304, 304
f
in lever system,
323
, 323–324
f
,
325
f
Lobar arteries, 722
f
,
722
t
Lobar (secondary) bronchi,
810
, 811
f
Lobe(s)
of cerebral hemispheres, 431, 432
f
of kidney,
956
of liver, 878, 879
f
of lungs, 814
f
,
815
, 815
f
mammary gland,
1041
, 1042
f
of multicellular exocrine gland, 124
thyroid gland, 606, 606
f
sprains of,
269
–270
syndesmoses connected by, 250,
250
f
of synovial joints,
252
, 252
f
joint stability and, 255
of vertebral column, 219, 219
f
Ligamentum arteriosum, 663
f
,
686
,
1080
f
,
1087
Ligamentum flavum,
219
, 219
f
Ligamentum nuchae, 203, 339
f
Ligamentum teres (ligament of head
of femur), 238,
267
, 267
f
Ligamentum teres (round ligament),
878
, 879
f
, 1080
f
,
1087
Ligamentum venosum, 1080
f
,
1087
Ligand(s),
81
, 82
f
Ligand-gated (chemically-gated)
channel(s),
396
, 396
f
muscle contraction and, 287
f
, 288,
288
f
, 289
Ligase, 97
Light, 553–556, 554
f
, 555
f
capture of by visual pigments,
560–561
focusing of on retina, 554–556,
555
f
pupillary reflex and, 549, 563
refraction of,
554
, 554
f
, 555
f
visual disorders related to,
556, 557
f
wavelength/color of, 553–554,
554
f
Light adaptation,
563
Light (L) chains,
781
, 781
f
Light chain kinase (myosin),
307
,
308
f
Light energy, 24
Light microscopy, tissue stains for,
117
–118
Light transduction
(phototransduction),
556
,
560–561, 561
f
Limb(s) (appendages/extremities).
See
Lower limbs; Upper limbs
Limb buds,
1077
, 1078
f
Limbic association area,
437
Limbic system, 436,
449
–450, 449
f
,
450
t
autonomic regulation and, 538,
538
f
olfactory sensation and, 436, 449,
567
Line (bone marking), 180
t
Linea alba,
342
t
, 343
f
Linea aspera,
238
, 239
f
Linear acceleration, macular response
to, 580–581, 581
f
Lingual artery, 726
f
,
726
t
, 727
f
Lingual frenulum, 856
f
,
857
Lingual lipase, 857, 859, 893
f
Lingual tonsils,
759
, 759
f
, 804
f
,
806
,
856
f
, 857, 857
f
Linked genes,
1098
, 1098
f
Linker DNA, 93, 93
f
Linker proteins, 67, 67
f
Linoleic acid, 908
Lip(s) (labia),
856
–857, 856
f
cle², 244
f
,
899
Lipase(s),
883
, 893
f
,
895
, 895
f
chief cell secretion of, 866
gastric, 866, 893
f
lingual, 857, 859, 893
f
Lens (of eye), 548
f
, 552
f
,
553
accommodation of, in close
vision,
556
clouding of (cataract),
553
, 553
f
development of, 585
in light focusing, 555
f
, 556
suspensory ligament of, 548
f
,
549
,
552
f
Lens crystallins,
553
Lens epithelium, 552
f
,
553
Lenses, refraction and, 554, 554
f
, 555
f
Lens fibers,
553
Lens vesicle,
585
Lentiform nucleus, 441
Leptin,
621
, 622
t
,
940
–941, 940
f
bone density affected by, 188
in female reproductive function,
1047, 1051
Lesion,
149
Lesser curvature of stomach, 865
f
,
866
Lesser occipital nerve, 503
f
, 503
t
Lesser omentum,
866
, 889
f
Lesser sciatic notch,
235
, 236
f
Lesser sphenoid wing, 205
f
, 207
f
,
209
, 209
f
Lesser trochanter,
238
, 239
f
Lesser tubercle,
228
, 230
f
Let-down reflex, 599, 602
t
,
1088
, 1088
f
Lethal dominant genes, 1099
Lethal hit, cytotoxic T cell,
789
Lethargy, 453
Letrozole, 1043
Leukemias, 645
Leukocyte(s) (white blood cells),
128
,
129
t
, 137
f
, 632, 632
f
,
640
–645,
641
f
, 643
f
, 644
t
.
See also
specific type
agranulocytes, 640, 641
f
,
642
,
643
f
, 644
t
granulocytes, 640,
640
–642, 641
f
,
643
f
, 644
t
in urine, 980
t
Leukocyte count, 640, 641
f
differential, 641
f
,
653
–654
Leukocytosis, 640,
769
, 769
f
Leukocytosis-inducing factors,
769
Leukopenia,
644
Leukoplakia, 145
b
Leukopoiesis,
642
–644, 643
f
Leukotrienes, 46
t
, 593
Levator ani muscle,
344
t
, 345
f
, 888
f
,
981
Levator labii superioris muscle,
330
t
,
331
f
Levator palpebrae superioris muscle,
545
, 545
f
Levator scapulae muscle,
346
t
, 348–
349
f
,
348
t
Levator veli palatini, 334
t
, 335
f
Lever(s)/lever systems,
323
–324,
323–324
f
, 325
f
Leydig (interstitial endocrine) cells,
1021
–1022, 1021
f
LH.
See
Luteinizing hormone
Lids (eyelids),
545
, 545
f
, 546
Life
cellular basis of, 62, 62
f
, 63
f
maintenance of/necessary
functions and, 4–8, 5
f
Ligament(s), 132,
252
, 252
f
.
See also
specific named ligament
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