I-30
Index
Lateral supracondylar ridge,
230
, 230
f
Lateral thoracic artery, 728
f
,
728
t
,
729
f
Lateral ventricles, 429
f
,
430
, 431
f
Late secondary follicle,
1045
, 1046
f
Latissimus dorsi muscle, 327
f
,
346
t
,
348–349
f
,
350
t
, 351
f
,
351
t
,
358
t
Laughing, 824
t
LDLs.
See
Low-density lipoproteins
±-dopa, for Parkinson’s disease, 464
Leader sequence,
105
, 108
f
Leading strand,
97
, 98
f
Lead salts, skin penetrated by, 162,
163
Leakage channels, 69,
396
Learned (acquired) reflex, 513
Lecithin, 896, 908
Lectin(s), 772
Lectin pathway, of complement
activation,
772
, 772
f
LeF anterior descending artery
(anterior interventricular
artery), 663
f
,
668
, 670
f
LeF ascending lumbar vein,
741
t
,
742–743
f
LeF atrium, 659, 662, 663–665
f
, 669
f
LeF brachiocephalic vein, 736–737
f
,
736
t
LeF bundle branch,
676
LeF colic artery, 730
f
,
732
t
, 733
f
LeF colic (splenic) flexure,
887
, 888
f
LeF common carotid artery, 724
f
,
724
t
, 726
f
, 728
f
LeF common iliac artery, 724
f
,
724
t
,
732
t
LeF coronary artery, 663
f
,
668
, 670
f
,
724
f
,
724
t
LeF gastric artery, 730
f
, 731
f
,
731
t
LeF gastroepiploic artery, 730
f
, 731
f
,
731
t
LeF hypochondriac region,
19
, 20
f
LeF iliac (inguinal) region,
19
, 20
f
LeF lobe, of liver, 878, 879
f
LeF lower quadrant (LLQ),
19
, 19
f
LeF lumbar region,
19
, 20
f
LeF main (primary) bronchus, 802
f
,
810
, 811
f
LeF marginal artery, 670
LeF pulmonary artery, 663–665
f
,
722
f
,
722
t
, 814
f
LeF pulmonary vein, 663–665
f
, 722
f
,
722
t
, 814
f
LeF subclavian artery, 724
f
,
724
t
,
726
f
, 728
f
, 729
f
LeF suprarenal vein, 736
f
, 743
f
LeF upper quadrant (LUQ),
19
, 19
f
LeF ventricle, 659, 662, 663–665
f
,
668, 669
f
, 670
f
Leg
bones of, 239–241, 240
f
, 243
t
muscles of/muscles controlling
movement of, 326
f
, 327
f
,
363–369
t
, 364
f
, 367–368
f
,
370–373
t
, 371
f
, 372
f
, 374–
375
f
, 380
t
, 381
f
Length-tension relationship,
302
cardiac muscle, 682
skeletal muscle contraction force
and, 301
f
,
302
, 302
f
smooth muscle contraction and,
309
Latent syphilis, 1053
Lateral (term), 12
t
Lateral angle of scapula, 228
Lateral apertures,
430
, 431
f
Lateral (axillary) border of scapula,
228, 229
f
Lateral cervical (cardinal) ligaments,
1037
f
,
1038
Lateral circumflex femoral artery,
734–735
f
,
734
t
Lateral commissure/canthus,
545
,
545
f
Lateral compartment of leg, muscles
of, 370
t
, 372
f
, 373
t
, 380
t
, 381
f
Lateral condyle
of femur,
238
, 239
f
of tibia,
239
–241, 240
f
Lateral cords, brachial plexus, 504
f
,
505
, 505
t
Lateral corticospinal tract, 469
f
, 472
f
,
473
t
Lateral cuneiform bone, 241
f
,
242
,
243
t
Lateral cutaneous branch of
intercostal nerve, 502
f
Lateral epicondyle
of femur,
238
, 239
f
of humerus,
230
, 230
f
Lateral excursion, 268–269, 268
f
Lateral femoral cutaneous nerve,
507
f
, 507
t
Lateral fornix, 1037
f
, 1040
Lateral funiculi, 467
f
,
468
Lateral geniculate bodies/nuclei, 441,
442
f
,
563
, 564
f
, 565
Lateral horns,
466
, 467
f
,
529
, 530
f
Lateral hypothalamic area, 442
f
food intake regulation and, 939,
940, 940
f
Lateral inhibition, 565
Lateralization, 433,
437
Lateral lemniscus,
579
, 579
f
Lateral ligaments, of
temporomandibular joint,
267
, 268
f
Lateral longitudinal arch of foot,
242
,
242
f
Lateral malleolus, 240
f
,
241
Lateral mass
of atlas, 221, 221
f
of ethmoid bone,
210
, 210
f
Lateral meniscus of knee, 262–263
f
Lateral (small cell) nuclear group,
450
Lateral patellar retinaculum, 262
f
,
263
Lateral plantar artery, 734–735
f
,
735
t
Lateral plantar nerve,
509
, 509
t
Lateral plantar vein,
744
t
Lateral plate mesoderm,
1077
, 1078
f
,
1079
f
Lateral pterygoid muscle,
332
t
, 333
f
Lateral rectus muscle,
547
, 547
f
Lateral reticulospinal tract, 469
f
, 473
t
Lateral rotation, 257
f
, 258
of lower limb, 380
t
, 381
f
of upper limb, 358
t
, 359
f
Lateral sacral crest,
224
, 224
f
Lateral semicircular canal, 573, 573
f
Lateral spinothalamic tract,
469
, 469
f
,
470
f
, 471
t
Lateral sulcus,
431
, 432
f
Lateral supracondylar line,
238
, 239
f
Lacteals,
753
, 876
f
,
877
Lactic acid,
299
, 299
f
, 918
f
,
919
, 1004
Lactiferous ducts,
1041
, 1042
f
Lactiferous sinus,
1041
, 1042
f
Lactogen, human placental, 1074,
1083
Lactose, 43, 44
f
, 892, 893
f
Lactose intolerance, 894
Lacunae
bone, 136, 137
f
,
181
, 182
f
cartilage, 134, 135
f
, 174
in stratum functionalis
(intervillous spaces),
1072
,
1073
f
, 1074
f
Lagging strand,
97
, 98
f
Lambdoid suture, 201, 201
f
,
202
,
203
f
, 204
f
, 205
f
Lamellae (bone), 136, 137
f
,
181
, 181
f
,
182
f
Lamellar bone,
181
, 182
f
, 185
f
.
See
also
Compact bone
Lamellar (Pacinian) corpuscles, 151
f
,
154, 163, 486
t
,
487
Lamellar granules, 152
Lamina(e)
basal.
See
Basal lamina
nuclear, 92, 92
f
osseous spiral,
573
, 574
f
reticular,
118
vertebral,
220
, 220
f
Lamina propria,
142
,
855
of alimentary canal mucosa, 854
f
,
855
of areolar connective tissue, 130,
131
f
Laminar flow (streamlining), 702
Laminectomy,
248
Laminin, 127
Lamins, 92, 92
f
Langerhans, islets of (pancreatic islets),
618
, 618
f
, 883, 624–625
b
Langerhans cells (epidermal dendritic
cells),
152
, 153
f
, 163
Language, 455–456
Lanugo coat, 167
Laparoscopy,
905
,
1063
Large cell (medial) nuclear group,
450
Large granular lymphocytes, 766
Large intestine, 850
f
, 885
t
,
887
–892,
888
f
, 889
f
autonomic innervation/effects
and, 528
f
, 532
f
digestive processes occurring in,
851
f
, 885
t
, 890–892, 891
f
Laryngeal cartilages, 174, 175
f
, 804
f
,
807–808, 807
f
Laryngeal prominence (Adam’s
apple),
807
, 807
f
Laryngitis,
809
Laryngopharynx, 804
f
,
806
, 856
f
,
861
Laryngotracheal bud,
841
, 842
f
Larynx (voice box), 802
f
, 804
f
, 805
t
,
807
–809, 807
f
, 808
f
cartilages in, 174, 175
f
, 804
f
,
807–808, 807
f
Lasix.
See
²urosemide
Latch state, 308
Latent period,
293
, 295
f
excitation-contraction coupling
during, 293
aFer orgasm, 1027
Kilocalories,
907
Kinesins, 88, 392
Kinesthetic receptors, joint, 486
t
,
487
Kinetic energy,
24
in active transport, 73, 74
f
, 78
t
in diffusion, 68, 72
t
enzyme action and, 52, 52
f
Kinetochore(s), 100
f
Kinetochore microtubules, 100
f
Kinins,
767
, 768
f
, 770
t
Kinocilium, 578, 580,
580
f
, 581
f
Klinefelter’s syndrome, 1054–1055
Kneecap (patella), 200
f
, 238,
239
,
239
f
, 243
t
Knee-jerk reflex, 474,
515
, 516
f
Knee joint, 255
t
, 262–264, 262–263
f
artificial/replacement, 271
b
femoropatellar, 255
t
,
262
, 263
injuries of, 264, 264
f
, 269, 269
f
muscles crossing/muscles acting
on, 363–369
t
, 364
f
, 367–368
f
,
380
t
, 381
f
tibiofemoral, 255
t
,
262
, 263
Knob, ATP synthase, 923, 923
f
Knuckle (metacarpophalangeal joint),
234, 254
t
Korotkoff sounds, 710
K-ras
oncogene, in colorectal cancer,
145
b
Krebs, Hans, 919
Krebs cycle, 914
f
, 916–917, 917
f
,
919
,
920
f
, 924
f
, 929
t
Kwashiorkor,
953
Kyphosis, 218, 219
f
, 245
Labia (lips) of mouth,
856
–857, 856
f
cleF, 244
f
,
899
Labial frenulum, 856
f
,
857
Labia majora (labium majus), 1035
f
,
1040
f
,
1041
, 1055, 1057
f
Labia minora (labium minus), 1035
f
,
1040
f
,
1041
, 1055, 1057
f
Labioscrotal swellings,
1055
, 1057
f
Labor,
1085
–1087, 1085
f
, 1087
f
oxytocin in, 11, 599, 602
t
,
1085
,
1085
f
Labyrinth (inner/internal ear), 208,
571
f
,
572
–575, 573
f
, 574
f
, 576
t
bony,
573
, 576
t
membranous,
573
, 573
f
, 576
t
Ménière’s syndrome and,
584
sound transmission to, 577, 577
f
Labyrinthitis,
590
Lacrimal apparatus,
546
, 546
f
Lacrimal bones, 203
f
, 204
f
,
212
,
217
t
Lacrimal canaliculi,
546
, 546
f
Lacrimal caruncle,
545
, 545
f
Lacrimal fossa, 204
f
,
212
,
217
t
Lacrimal gland,
546
, 546
f
autonomic innervation/effects
and, 528
f
, 532
f
, 536
t
Lacrimal nuclei, 528
Lacrimal puncta,
546
, 546
f
Lacrimal sac, 212,
546
, 546
f
Lacrimal secretion (tears),
546
, 770
t
Lactase,
892
, 893
f
, 894
Lactation, 1041, 1042
f
,
1087
–1089,
1088
f
oxytocin and, 599, 602
t
, 1088,
1088
f
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