Index
I-29
Keratin, 50, 51
t
, 122,
152
, 765, 770
t
in desmosomes, 66, 67
f
in hair, 157
in nails, 160
in skin, 122, 152, 765, 770
t
Keratin filaments, 66
Keratinization, 122,
152
, 160
Keratinized epithelia, 122
Keratinocytes,
152
, 153
f
Keratohyaline granules, 152
Ketoacidosis, diabetic,
620
, 621
t
Keto acids,
919
, 920
f
, 927, 928
f
, 929
Ketogenesis,
927
, 927
f
Ketone(s)/ketone bodies,
620
,
927
,
927
f
, 1004
Ketonuria, 620, 621
t
, 927, 980
t
Ketosis,
60
, 927
Kidney(s), 954–955, 955
f
, 979
f
.
See
also
under Renal
in acid-base balance, 972, 973
f
,
1006–1009, 1007
f
, 1008
f
, 1009
f
compensations for
abnormalities and,
1011
,
1012
aging affecting, 985
anatomy of, 955–963
internal, 956–957, 957
f
location/external anatomy,
955–956, 956
f
nephrons,
958
–963, 959
f
,
960
f
, 961
f
, 962
f
.
See also
Nephron(s)
arteries supplying, 725
f
, 730
f
,
732
f
,
732
t
autonomic innervation/effects
and, 532
f
, 536
t
, 537
blood pressure regulation and,
708–710, 708
f
, 709
f
, 1002
f
blood supply/blood flow/
perfusion of, 712, 712
f
,
957–958, 958
f
in calcium regulation, 1003–1004
clinical evaluation of, 977–979
developmental aspects of, 983, 984
f
erythropoietin produced by,
636–637
in fluid balance, 999–1000, 1000
f
,
1001
f
, 1002
f
hormones produced by, 621–623,
622
t
infection of (pyelitis/
pyelonephritis), 956–957, 982
nerve supply of, 957–958
parathyroid hormone affecting,
611, 611
f
physiology of,
2
, 963–977, 963
f
.
See also
Urine, formation of
polycystic, 984
potassium balance regulation and,
1002–1003
pregnancy and, 1083
sodium balance regulation and,
999–1000, 1000
f
, 1001
f
, 1002
f
urine formation by, 963–977, 963
f
urine transport/storage/
elimination and, 979–982,
979
f
, 980
f
veins of, 736–737
f
, 742–743
f
,
742
t
Kidney failure,
978
Kidney stones (renal calculi),
979
–980
Killer cells, natural (NK),
766
–767,
770
t
, 789
Isovolumetric relaxation phase, 680
f
,
681
Isthmus
of fauces, 804
f
,
806
of thyroid gland, 606, 606
f
of uterine tube,
1037
, 1037
f
of uterus, 1037
f
, 1038
Itch receptor, 496
Jaundice, 156, 882, 1088,
1094
Jaw/jawbone.
See
Mandible;
Maxillary bones/maxilla(e)
Jaw joint.
See
Temporomandibular
joint
Jejunum, 850
f
,
875
, 875
f
Joint(s),
249
–275, 253
t
, 254–255
t
.
See
also
specific joint
arthritis/osteoarthritis affecting,
270
–272, 272
f
artificial (prosthetic), 271
b
cartilaginous,
251
–252, 251
f
, 253
t
case study and, 275
b
classification of, 249–250, 253
t
common injuries of, 269–270, 269
f
developmental aspects of,
272–273
fibrous,
250
–251, 250
f
, 253
t
homeostatic imbalances and,
269–272
inflammatory/degenerative
conditions of, 270–272, 272
f
innervation of, 252–253, 510–511
muscles in stabilization of, 255, 277
synovial,
252
–269, 252
f
, 253
t
Joint (articular) capsule,
252
, 252
f
.
See
Articular (joint) capsule
Joint (articular/synovial) cavities,
20
,
252, 252
f
of knee joint, 262
f
, 263
of shoulder joint, 265
f
Joint kinesthetic receptors, 486
t
,
487
Jugular foramen, 206
f
, 207
f
,
208
,
216
t
, 499
t
, 500
t
Jugular lymph sacs, 760
Jugular (suprasternal) notch,
225
,
225
f
Jugular trunks,
753
, 753
f
Jugular veins
external, 736–737
f
, 738–739
f
,
738
t
, 740–741
f
internal, 736–737
f
,
736
t
, 738–
739
f
,
738
t
, 740–741
f
Junctional folds,
286
, 287
f
Junctional rhythm,
676
, 679
f
Juxtaglomerular (JG/granular) cells,
962
f
,
963
, 968
Juxtaglomerular complex (JGC), 614,
962
–963, 962
f
sodium regulation and, 999,
1001
f
, 1002
f
tubuloglomerular feedback and,
966, 967
f
Juxtamedullary nephrons, 961
f
,
962
osmotic gradient created by, 973,
974–975
f
K.
See
Potassium
Kaposi’s sarcoma, in AIDS, 793
Karyotype,
1096
Keloid,
149
Inulin, glomerular filtration rate
estimated by clearance rate
of, 978
Inversion (body movement),
258
, 259
f
of lower limb, 380
t
, 381
f
In vitro
fertilization, 1089
Involuntary muscle,
138
.
See also
Cardiac muscle; Smooth
muscle
Involuntary nervous system,
387
,
524
.
See also
Autonomic
nervous system
Iodide, in thyroid hormone synthesis,
608, 608
f
Iodine, 26
t
, 915
t
in thyroid hormone synthesis,
608, 608
f
Iodine-131, 28
Ion(s), 24,
32
, 32
f
tubular reabsorption of, 969–970,
970
f
, 973
f
Ion channels, 65,
69
, 396–397, 396
f
.
See also
specific type and
Channels
Ionic bonds,
32
, 32
f
, 34
f
Ionizing radiation, 28,
60
IP
3
(inositol trisphosphate),
595
Ipsilateral fibers, cerebellar,
447
Ipsilateral reflex,
515
IPSPs.
See
Inhibitory postsynaptic
potentials
Iris, 545
f
, 548
f
,
549
–551, 549
f
, 552
f
autonomic innervation/effects
and, 536
t
Iron, 26
t
, 915
t
absorption of, 898
dietary, 915
t
erythropoiesis and, 637, 638
f
Iron barrier, mucosal, 898
Iron-deficiency anemia, 638–639
Irregular bones,
176
, 176
f
, 177
Irregular dense connective tissue,
129
t
,
132
, 133
f
Irritability.
See
Excitability
Irritable bowel syndrome, 891
Ischemia,
463
myocardial, 674, 678
in stroke, 463
Ischemic (stagnant) hypoxia,
829
Ischemic (luteolytic) phase, of
ovarian cycle, 1047
Ischial ramus,
235
, 236
f
Ischial spine,
235
, 236
f
Ischial tuberosity,
235
, 236
f
Ischiocavernosus muscle,
344
t
, 345
f
Ischiofemoral ligament,
267
, 267
f
Ischium,
235
, 235
f
, 236
f
Islets of Langerhans (pancreatic islets),
618
, 618
f
, 883, 624–625
b
IsograFs,
790
Isomers (glucose),
43
Isometric contraction, 293, 297
f
,
298
Isometric exercises, muscles affected
by, 305
Isotonic contraction, 293,
297
–298,
297
f
Isotonic solutions,
71
, 71
f
Isotopes,
27
, 27
f
radioactivity exhibited by, 28.
See
also
Radioisotopes
Isovolumetric contraction phase,
680
f
,
681
Intestinal phase, of gastric secretion,
871
–872, 871
f
Intestinal pits, 877
Intestinal trunk,
753
, 753
f
Intestine(s).
See also
Large intestine;
Small intestine
arteries supplying, 730
f
,
732
t
, 733
f
autonomic innervation/effects
and, 528
f
, 532
f
, 536
t
, 540
b
mucosa-associated lymphoid
tissue (MALT) in, 854
f
,
855
parathyroid hormone affecting,
611
f
Intracapsular ligaments, of synovial
joints,
252
 
of knee joint, 263.
See also
Cruciate ligaments
Intracellular fluid, 63, 991, 991
f
electrolytes in, 992–993, 992
f
extracellular fluid compared with,
992–993, 992
f
gas/nutrient/water/waste
exchanges and, 993, 993
f
resting membrane potential and,
397, 398
f
Intracellular fluid compartment,
991
,
991
f
Intracellular receptors, in hormone
mechanism of action, 593,
595, 596
f
Intracranial dural sinuses.
See
Dural
venous sinuses
Intracranial hemorrhage, 463
Intraepithelial lymphocytes, 877
Intrafusal muscle fibers, 487,
514
,
514
f
, 515
f
Intramembranous ossification, 183,
185
, 185
f
Intramolecular bonds, hydrogen
bonds as, 35
Intramural ganglia, 528
Intraocular pressure, in glaucoma,
553
Intraperitoneal (peritoneal) organs,
853
Intrapleural pressure,
817
, 817
f
, 819,
819
f
Intrapulmonary pressure,
816
, 817
f
,
818
f
, 819, 819
f
Intrauterine device, 1090
b
Intravenous pyelogram (IVP), 979
f
,
988
Intrinsic (deep) back muscles,
336–338
t
, 339
f
Intrinsic cardiac conduction system,
674
–676, 674
f
, 675
f
, 678, 679
f
Intrinsic factor,
639
,
870
, 897, 912
gastric secretion of, 866, 870, 897
Intrinsic foot muscles, 376–377
t
,
377
f
, 379
f
Intrinsic nerve plexuses, of
alimentary canal, 852, 853
f
,
854
f
, 855
Intrinsic palm muscles, 354
t
, 360–
362
t
, 361
f
Intrinsic pathway,
647
, 648, 648
f
Intrinsic (inborn) reflex, 513
Intrinsic (minor) salivary glands,
858
Intrinsic tongue muscles,
332
t
,
857
Introns,
102
mRNA processing and, 103–104
RNA coding and, 105–106
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