I-28
Index
Internal urethral sphincter,
981
, 981
f
Interneurons (association neurons),
395
,
395
t
in posterior horns, 466
Internodal pathway, of cardiac
conduction system, 675, 675
f
Interoceptors (visceroceptors),
484
485, 485
t
, 486
t
Interossei muscles
of foot,
378
t
, 379
f
of hand, 361
f
,
362
t
Interosseous artery, common, 728
f
,
728
t
, 729
f
Interosseous membrane
in forearm,
231
, 231
f
in leg, 239, 240
f
Interphalangeal joints
of fingers, 254
t
of toes, 255
t
Interphase, 96,
96
–97, 97
f
, 98
f
, 100
f
,
1030
f
Interspinous ligament, 219
f
Interstitial cells of Cajal, 873
Interstitial endocrine cells (Leydig
cells),
1021
–1022, 1021
f
Interstitial (tissue) fluid,
68
,
991
, 991
f
electrolytes in, 992
f
gas/nutrient/water/waste
exchanges and, 993, 993
f
in ground substance, 127
Interstitial fluid colloid osmotic
pressure, 717, 718–719
f
Interstitial fluid hydrostatic pressure
(HP
if
),
717
, 718–719
f
Interstitial growth, of cartilage, 174
Interstitial lamellae,
181
, 182
f
Intertarsal joint, 255
t
Interthalamic adhesion (intermediate
mass), 440
f
,
441
Intertrochanteric crest,
238
, 239
f
Intertrochanteric line,
238
, 239
f
Intertubercular sulcus (bicipital
groove),
228
–230, 230
f
Interventricular artery
anterior, 663
f
,
668
, 670
f
posterior, 664
f
,
670
, 670
f
Interventricular foramen,
430
, 431
f
,
440
f
Interventricular septum,
662
, 665
f
Interventricular sulcus
anterior,
662
posterior,
662
Intervertebral discs,
219
–220, 219
f
,
222
f
, 254
t
herniated (prolapsed/slipped),
219
–220, 220
f
aging and, 245
as symphyses, 252
Intervertebral foramen, 218
f
, 219
f
,
220
Intervertebral joint, 254
t
Intervillous spaces, in stratum
functionalis,
1072
, 1073
f
, 1074
f
Intestinal arteries, 730
f
,
732
t
, 733
f
Intestinal crypts, 876
f
,
877
Intestinal flora, 890
Intestinal (enteric) gastrin, 622
t
, 868
t
,
871
f
,
872
.
See also
Gastrin
Intestinal juice, 877
Intestinal motility
large intestine, 890–891
small intestine, 886–887, 886
t
Intercostal spaces, 225, 225
f
Intercostal veins, posterior, 740–741
f
,
740
t
,
741
t
Interferons (IFNs), 770
t
,
771
, 771
f
,
790
t
Interleukin(s),
642
, 790
t
, 947
Interleukin 1,
787
, 790
t
Interleukin 2,
787
, 790
t
Interleukin 4, 790
t
Interleukin 5, 790
t
Interleukin 10, 790
t
Interleukin 12, 790
t
Interleukin 17, 790
t
Interlobar arteries,
957
, 958
f
Interlobar veins,
957
, 958
f
Interlobular (cortical radiate) arteries,
renal,
957
, 958
f
Interlobular veins, hepatic, 880
f
Intermaxillary suture, 206
f
, 212
Intermediate (term), 12
t
Intermediate cuneiform bone, 241
f
,
242
,
243
t
Intermediate filaments, 63
f
,
88
, 88
f
,
95
t
in desmosomes, 66, 67
f
in neurons (neurofibrils),
390
in skeletal muscle (desmin
filaments), 281
in smooth muscle, 307, 307
f
Intermediate mass (interthalamic
adhesion), 440
f
,
441
Intermediate mesoderm,
1077
, 1078
f
,
1079
f
Intermediate part (membranous)
urethra,
981
, 981
f
, 1019
f
,
1023
f
, 1024
Intermittent claudication, 315
Internal (term), 12
t
.
See also
under
Deep
Internal acoustic meatus, 205
f
, 207
f
,
208
, 497
t
Internal anal sphincter,
887
, 888
f
Internal capsule,
437
, 438
f
Internal carotid artery, 725
f
, 726
f
,
726
t
, 727
f
Internal (inner) ear, 208, 571
f
,
572
575, 573
f
, 574
f
, 576
t
Ménière’s syndrome and,
584
sound transmission to, 577, 577
f
Internal feedback, in motor
integration, 512
Internal iliac arteries, 725
f
, 734–735
f
,
734
t
, 1039
Internal iliac vein, 737
f
, 742–743
f
,
744
f
,
744
t
Internal intercostal muscles,
340
t
,
341
f
Internal jugular veins, 736–737
f
,
736
t
,
738–739
f
,
738
t
, 740–741
f
Internal oblique muscles, 326
f
,
342
t
,
343
f
Internal os, 1037
f
, 1038
Internal pudendal artery, 734
f
,
734
t
,
1027
Internal (open) reduction of fracture,
191
Internal respiration,
802
, 827–828
Internal spermatic fascia, 1020
f
Internal strabismus, 497
t
Internal tension,
301
Internal thoracic (internal mammary)
artery, 727
f
, 728
f
, 729
f
,
729
t
in postabsorptive state regulation,
933
Insulin-dependent (type 1) diabetes
mellitus (IDDM), 620,
624
–625
b
, 794, 948
Insulin-like growth factor(s) (IGFs),
602
t
,
603
Insulin resistance,
625
b
Integral proteins, 64
f
,
65
Integrase inhibitors, for HIV
infection/AIDS, 793
Integration,
387
, 387
f
,
421
–423, 421
f
,
422
f
motor, 511–513, 512
f
sensory, 487–490, 488
f
, 490
f
Integration center, in reflex arc, 422,
422
f
, 513, 513
f
, 533, 533
f
Integrins, 80
Integument.
See
Skin
Integumentary system, 5
f
, 6
f
,
150
172.
See also
Skin
autonomic nervous system and,
540
b
in body defense, 5, 5
f
, 6
f
boundary maintenance and, 5, 5
f
,
6
f
, 118, 162–163
cardiovascular system and, 168
b
,
746
b
case study and, 172
b
developmental aspects of, 167
digestive system and, 168
b
, 900
b
endocrine system and, 168
b
, 626
b
functions of, 6
f
, 162–164
homeostatic relationships of, 5
f
,
168
b
lymphatic system/immunity and,
168
b
, 761
b
muscular system and, 168
b
, 314
b
nervous system and, 168
b
, 540
b
reproductive system and, 168
b
,
1059
b
respiratory system and, 168
b
, 843
b
skeletal system and, 168
b
, 195
b
thyroid hormone affecting, 607
t
urinary system and, 168
b
, 1013
b
Intensity of sound waves, relative, 579
Interatrial septum,
662
Intercalated cells, 959
f
, 960
type A, 960
hydrogen secretion by, in acid
base balance, 1007, 1008,
1008
f
in potassium regulation, 1003
type B, 960
bicarbonate secretion by, 1009
Intercalated discs,
138
, 139
f
,
671
, 672
f
Intercarpal joint, 254
t
Intercellular cle±s,
697
, 697
f
Intercondylar eminence, 240
f
,
241
Intercondylar fossa,
239
, 239
f
Intercostal arteries
anterior, 728
f
, 729
f
,
729
t
posterior, 728
f
, 729
f
,
729
t
Intercostal muscles, 326
f
, 340
t
, 341
f
,
818
f
, 819
external,
340
t
, 341
f
, 819, 819
f
internal,
340
t
, 341
f
Intercostal nerves, 501
f
, 502
f
,
509
,
834
muscles of respiration supplied
by, 340
t
, 834
in respiration,
834
Inhibiting hormones, hypothalamic,
442,
599
Inhibitory neurotransmitters, 415–
416
t
, 418, 525
Inhibitory postsynaptic potentials
(IPSPs), 410
f
,
411
, 413
t
information processing in retina
and, 561, 562
f
summation by, 411–413, 411
f
Inhibitory synapses, 411
Initiation
in transcription, 103, 103
f
in translation, 105, 106
f
Initiator tRNA,
105
, 106–107
f
Inlet, pelvic, 237
t
,
238
Innate defenses,
764
, 765–773, 765
f
,
770
t
, 791
f
helper T cells affecting, 788
internal (cells/chemicals), 764,
765
f
, 766–773, 767
f
, 768
f
, 769
f
,
770
t
, 771
f
, 772
f
, 791
f
surface barriers (skin/mucosae),
162–163, 764, 765–766, 765
f
,
770
t
, 791
f
Inner cell mass, 1067, 1071
f
, 1072
f
Inner ear.
See
Internal (inner) ear
Inner fiber, rod and cone, 557, 558
f
Inner hair cells, 574
f
,
578
Inner layer of eye, 548
f
, 550
f
,
551
552, 551
f
.
See also
Retina
Inner mitochondrial membrane,
83, 83
f
Inner segments, rod and cone,
557
Innervation, of epithelial tissue, 118
Inorganic components, of bone, 183
Inorganic compounds, 38–41,
38
.
See
also
specific type
Inositol trisphosphate,
595
Inotropic agents, positive and
negative, 683
Inotropic (channel-linked) receptors,
420
, 420
f
Input (receptive) regions,
391
, 391
f
Insensible heat loss/perspiration,
163,
945
Insensible water loss,
945
,
994
, 995
Insertion (muscle),
256
,
278
Insoluble fiber, 908
Insomnia,
455
Inspiration, 802, 818–819, 818
f
, 819
f
first a±er birth, 841–842, 1087
muscles used in, 340
t
, 341
f
, 818
f
,
819
Inspiratory capacity,
822
, 822
f
Inspiratory muscles, 340
t
, 341
f
, 818
f
,
819
Inspiratory reserve volume,
821
, 822
f
Insufficient heart valve, 668, 679
Insula,
431
, 432
f
Insulators, 396
Insulin, 51
t
, 618,
618
–620, 618
f
, 619
f
,
624
b
absorptive state regulated by,
932–933, 932
f
deficit of/diabetes and, 620, 621
t
,
624–625
b
, 932
excess (hyperinsulinism), 620
in food intake regulation, 940,
940
f
mechanism of action of, 595
metabolism and, 618–620, 619
f
,
931
f
, 932, 933, 936
t
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