I-26
Index
Hypodermis (superficial fascia/
subcutaneous tissue), 130,
151
, 151
f
, 167
Hypogastric plexus, inferior (pelvic),
528
f
,
529
Hypogastric (pubic) region,
19
, 20
f
Hypoglossal canal,
202
, 207
f
,
216
t
, 500
t
Hypoglossal nerve (cranial nerve
XII) 332
t
, 444
f
, 446, 493
f
,
500
,
500
t
, 503
f
Hypoglycemia,
620
Hypoglycemic hormone, insulin as,
618, 619
f
,
932
, 932
f
Hypokalemia, 998
t
heart function and, 684, 1001
Hypomagnesemia, 915
t
, 998
t
hypoparathyroidism and, 611
Hyponatremia,
996
, 998
t
Hyponychium (nail),
160
, 160
f
Hypoparathyroidism, 611
Hypophosphatemia, 998
t
Hypophyseal artery
inferior, 600
f
superior, 601
f
Hypophyseal fossa, 207
f
,
209
, 209
f
Hypophyseal portal system, 599, 601
f
Hypophyseal portal vein,
599
, 601
f
Hypophysectomy,
630
Hypophysis,
598
.
See also
Pituitary
gland
Hypoproteinemia,
996
–997
Hypospadias, 984
Hypotension,
711
orthostatic,
539
, 711
Hypothalamic-hypophyseal tract,
599
, 600
f
Hypothalamic nuclei, 441, 442
f
Hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis,
1033
–1034, 1034
f
Hypothalamic thirst center, 442,
994–995, 994
f
Hypothalamus, 429, 440
f
,
441
–443,
442
f
, 444
f
, 450
t
, 592
f
autonomic regulation by, 442,
538, 538
f
development of, 429, 429
f
, 476
food intake regulation and, 442,
939, 940
f
hormone secretion regulated by,
442, 597, 597
f
in labor, 1085, 1085
f
limbic system and, 442, 449, 449
f
pituitary relationship and,
599–601, 600–601
f
, 602–603
t
,
1033–1034, 1034
f
respiratory regulation and, 835
f
,
837
sleep and, 442, 454
in temperature regulation, 442,
945, 945
f
thirst regulated by, 442, 994–995,
994
f
Hypothenar eminence, muscles of,
360
t
, 361
f
Hypothermia,
947
Hypothyroidism, 609–610, 609
f
, 942
Hypotonic hydration,
996
, 997
f
Hypotonic solutions, 71
f
,
72
Hypoventilation (respiratory
acidosis),
839
, 1006,
1009
,
1010
t
, 1011
b
renal compensations and, 1012
Hyperbaric oxygen chambers, 825
Hypercalcemia, 188, 998
t
heart function and, 684
hyperparathyroidism and, 611
Hypercapnia,
836
Hyperchloremia, 998
t
Hypercholesterolemia, familial,
953
Hyperemia,
713
,
767
, 768
f
Hyperextension (body movement),
256
f
, 257
f
,
258
Hyperglycemia,
616
, 620, 621
t
, 624
b
Hyperglycemic hormone, glucagon
as, 618, 619
f
,
933
, 935
f
Hyperinsulinism, 620
Hyperkalemia, 998
t
heart function and, 684, 1001
Hypermagnesemia, 998
t
Hypernatremia, 998
t
Hyperopia (farsightedness),
556
,
557
f
, 585
Hyperparathyroidism, 611
Hyperphosphatemia, 998
t
Hyperplasia,
110
smooth muscle, 309
Hyperpnea,
838
Hyperpolarization,
399
, 399
f
action potential and, 400, 401,
402–403
f
photoreceptor, information
processing and, 561–562, 562
f
Hyperprolactinemia, 603
t
, 606
Hypersensitivities, 774,
794
–796, 795
f
Hypersomnia,
482
Hypertension,
710
–711
atherosclerosis and, 700
b
cardiac output and, 685
portal,
881
pregnancy and, 1085
sympathetic vasoconstriction
and, 539
Hyperthermia,
947
.
See also
Fever
metabolic rate and, 941
Hyperthermia therapy, in cancer
treatment, 146
b
Hyperthyroidism, 603
t
, 609
f
, 610,
941–942
Hypertonic solutions,
71
, 71
f
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy,
690
Hypertrophic zone (epiphyseal plate),
185, 186
f
Hypertrophy,
115
muscle
contraction force and, 301
resistance exercise and, 305
Hyperventilation (respiratory
alkalosis),
836
, 1006,
1009
,
1010
t
, 1011
b
renal compensations and, 1012
Hypervitaminoses, 912
t
Hypoadrenalism, 614, 616
t
Hypoaldosteronism (Addison’s
disease),
614
, 616
t
, 997, 1000
skin color in, 157
Hypoblast, 1073
f
, 1074, 1075
f
Hypocalcemia, 998
t
heart function and, 684
hypoparathyroidism and, 611
parathyroid hormone release and,
611
f
, 898
Hypocapnia,
836
Hypochloremia, 998
t
Hypochondriac regions,
19
, 20
f
Hybridomas,
783
Hydatid (hydatidiform) mole,
1094
Hydration, hypotonic,
996
, 997
f
Hydration layers,
38
Hydrocarbon chains, 45, 45
f
Hydrocephalus, 460–462, 462
f
Hydrochloric acid, 39, 1005
parietal cell formation/secretion
of, 866, 867
f
, 870–871, 872
f
peptic ulcers and, 869
Hydrocortisone (cortisol), 612
f
,
614
,
616
t
excess levels of, 614, 614–615, 616
t
metabolism and, 936
t
sodium regulation and, 1000
Hydrogen, 25, 26
t
.
See also
Hydrogen
ions
atomic structure of, 26, 27, 27
f
atomic weight of, 28
as chemically reactive element, 31
f
isotopes of, 27
f
in taste transduction, 569
Hydrogen bonds, 34–35, 35
f
Hydrogen gas, formation of, 32
Hydrogen ions,
39
.
See also
Hydrogen
in acid-base balance/pH, 40, 40
f
,
1004, 1005
f
.
See also
Acid-base
balance
renal regulation of
bicarbonate regeneration
and, 1008, 1008
f
tubular secretion and,
1007, 1007
f
respiratory regulation of, 832,
836, 836
f
, 837, 1006
acids releasing, 39
bases taking up, 39
Hydrogen phosphate, in plasma/
interstitial fluid/intracellular
fluid, 992, 992
f
Hydrogen sulfide (H
2
S),
417
Hydrolase(s), 52, 86
Hydrolysis reactions,
38
, 42
f
, 43
ATP in, 55, 56
in digestion, 38, 42
f
, 43,
892
Hydronephrosis, 956
Hydrophilic polar head, of
phospholipid, 45
f
, 47, 64
f
,
65
Hydrophobic nonpolar tail, of
phospholipid, 45
f
, 47, 64
f
,
65
Hydrostatic-osmotic pressure
interactions, 717, 718–719
f
Hydrostatic pressure,
71
,
716
–717,
718–719
f
in capsular space, 965
f
,
966
fluid movement among
compartments and,
71
, 993
in glomerular capillaries,
965
,
965
f
, 966
Hydroxide(s), 39
Hydroxyapatites, 183, 187
Hydroxyl ion(s),
39
, 40, 40
f
Hydroxyurea, 640
Hymen, 1035
f
,
1040
, 1040
f
, 1056
f
Hyoglossus muscle,
332
t
, 333
f
Hyoid bone,
215
, 215
f
, 804
f
, 807
f
,
856
f
Hyperaldosteronism (aldosteronism/
Conn’s disease), 614, 616
t
,
1017
Hyperalgesia,
489
Human development,
(contd.)
implantation,
1067
–1071,
1071
f
, 1072
f
organogenesis (germ layer
differentiation),
1076
1081, 1076
f
, 1077
f
, 1078
f
,
1079
f
, 1080
f
placentation,
1071
–1074,
1073
f
fertilization (egg to zygote),
1065
1067, 1065
f
, 1068–1069
f
, 1070
f
fetal, 1065, 1081–1082, 1081
f
,
1084
t
infant adjustment to extrauterine
life and, 1087
lactation and,
1087
–1089, 1088
f
parturition (birth) and,
1085
1087, 1085
f
, 1086
f
pregnancy and,
1065
, 1082–1085,
1082
f
Human gene therapy.
See
Gene
therapy
Human Genome Project,
1096
Human herpes virus type 2, 1054
Human immunodeficiency virus
(HIV),
793
–794
vaginal dendritic cells and, 1040
Human papillomavirus
cervical cancer and, 1038
genital warts caused by, 1054
vaccine against, 1038
Human placental lactogen, 1074,
1083
Humeral artery
anterior circumflex, 728
f
,
728
t
,
729
f
posterior circumflex, 728
f
,
728
t
,
729
f
Humerus, 200
f
,
228
, 230
f
,
233
t
muscles controlling movement of,
350–352
t
, 351–352
f
, 358
t
, 359
f
structure of, 178
f
Humoral (antibody-mediated)
immunity, 765
f
,
773
, 778–784,
779
t
, 791
f
.
See also
Antibodies
active,
780
, 780
f
B cell activation/differentiation
and, 778
f
, 779
immunological memory and,
779
–780, 779
f
passive,
780
, 780
f
primary response, 778
f
,
779
, 779
f
,
780
secondary response, 778
f
,
779
,
779
f
, 780
Humoral stimuli, for hormone
release, 596, 597
f
Humors, of eye, 549
Hunger, food intake regulation and,
939, 940
f
Huntingtin protein, 464
Huntington’s disease,
464
, 1099
Hyaline cartilage, 129
t
,
134
, 135
f
,
174
, 175
f
in endochondral ossification, 183,
184
f
skeletal,
174
, 175
f
in symphyses, 251, 251
f
in synchondroses, 251, 251
f
in synovial joints, 252, 252
f
tracheal, 807
f
, 809, 810
f
Hyaluronic acid, 127, 130, 132
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