Index
I-25
half-life/onset/duration of action
of, 598
heart rate affected by, 684
hyperglycemic, glucagon as, 618,
619
f
,
933
, 935
f
hypoglycemic, insulin as, 618,
619
f
,
932
, 932
f
interaction of at target cells, 598
mechanisms of action of, 593–
595, 594
f
, 596
f
metabolism affected by, 932–933,
932
f
, 933–935, 935
f
, 936
t
non-endocrine tissues/organs
producing, 621–623, 622
t
in plasma, 633
t
postabsorptive state regulated by,
933–935, 935
f
protein-based, 50, 51
t
protein synthesis regulated by,
603, 604
f
, 910–911
reproductive function regulation
and
female, 1047–1049, 1048
f
male, 1033–1035, 1034
f
smooth muscle contraction
regulated by, 308–309, 311
t
in sodium regulation, 1000
target cell specificity and, 595–596
tropic,
602
Hormone (estrogen) replacement
therapy, 193, 1058
Horner’s syndrome,
543
Horns, hyoid bone, 215, 215
f
Horny (cornified) cells, 154
Horseshoe kidney, 984
Housemaid’s knee, 270
HP.
See
Hydrostatic pressure
HP
c
.
See
Capillary hydrostatic
pressure
HP
cs
.
See
Hydrostatic pressure, in
capsular space
HP
gc
.
See
Hydrostatic pressure, in
glomerular capillaries
HP
if
.
See
Interstitial fluid hydrostatic
pressure
hPL.
See
Human placental lactogen
HPV.
See
Human papillomavirus
Human body.
See also
under Body
levels of structural organization
of, 3, 4
f
maintenance of life and, 4–8, 5
f
orientation to, 1–22
Human chorionic gonadotropin
(hCG),
1070
–1071, 1072
f
Human chorionic
somatomammotropin (hCS/
human placental lactogen),
1074,
1083
Human development, 1064–1094.
See
also
specific aspect
assisted reproductive technology/
reproductive cloning and,
1089
embryonic, 1065
cleavage/blastocyst formation,
1067
, 1071
f
extraembryonic membrane
formation, 1073
f
,
1074
–1075
gastrulation/germ layer
formation, 1073
f
,
1075
–1076, 1075
f
in immediate hypersensitivity,
795, 795
f
in inflammatory response,
767
,
768
f
, 770
t
in mast cells, 128,
767
Histology,
2
,
117
artifacts and,
118
light and electron microscopy in,
117–118
tissue preparation for, 117–118
Histones/histone proteins,
93
–96, 93
f
in DNA replication, 97
epigenetic marks and, 1102
Histotoxic hypoxia,
829
HIV (human immunodeficiency
virus),
793
–794
vaginal dendritic cells and, 1040
Hoarseness, 499, 809
Hodgkin’s lymphoma,
763
Holocrine glands,
125
, 126
f
, 162
Holoenzyme,
52
Homeostasis,
8
–11, 9
f
, 10
f
, 11
f
control mechanisms and, 9–11,
9
f
, 10
f
, 11
f
disturbances in (homeostatic
imbalances),
11
.
See also
specific type or organ/system
affected
Homeostatic relationships
of autonomic nervous system,
540
b
of cardiovascular system, 5
f
, 746
b
of digestive system, 5
f
, 900
b
of endocrine system, 10, 626
b
of integumentary system, 5
f
, 168
b
of lymphatic system, 761
b
of muscular system, 314
b
of reproductive system, 1059
b
of respiratory system, 5
f
, 843
b
of skeletal system, 195
b
of urinary system, 5
f
, 1013
b
Homogeneous mixture, 29, 30
Homologous chromosomes
(homologues),
1027
, 1029, 1096
Homozygous (term),
1096
Hooke, Robert, 62
Horizontal cells, in retina, 550
f
Horizontal fissure, 814
f
, 815
Horizontal (transverse) plane/section,
14
, 15
f
Horizontal plates, 206
f
,
212
, 214
f
Hormonal stimuli, for hormone
release, 597, 597
f
Hormone(s), 81,
124
, 592, 593–598.
See also
specific type
absorptive state regulated by,
932–933, 932
f
anabolic, 312,
313
b
, 910
blood pressure control and, 707,
707
t
, 708
f
bone production of, 177, 622
t
, 623
in bone remodeling, 187–188,
188
f
chemistry of, 593
in contraception,
1090
–1091
b
control of release of, 442, 596–
597, 597
f
in digestion, 868
t
food intake regulation and, 940,
940
f
glomerular filtration rate control
and, 967
f
, 968
genetics vocabulary, 1095–1097,
1096
f
inheritance patterns and, 1099–
1101, 1099
f
, 1100
f
, 1101
f
nontraditional inheritance and,
1102–1103
sexual sources of genetic variation
and, 1097–1099, 1097
f
, 1098
f
Hering-Breuer (inflation) reflex,
838
Hermaphrodites, 1055
Hernia,
318
,
384
abdominal,
384
hiatal,
863
inguinal,
1063
Herniated (prolapsed/slipped) disc,
219
–220, 220
f
aging and, 245
Herpes virus
cold sores (fever blisters) caused
by,
171
genital herpes caused by,
1054
Herpes zoster (shingles),
427
Hertz (Hz), 576
Heterogeneous mixture, 30
Heterozygous (term),
1096
Hexose sugars, 43, 44
f
Hiatal hernia,
863
Hiccups, 505, 824
t
High blood pressure.
See
Hypertension
High-density lipoproteins (HDLs),
936
, 936
f
recommended blood levels of, 737
High-energy phosphate bonds, 55,
55
f
Higher mental functions.
See
Cognition/cognitive function
Hilton’s law,
510
–511
Hilum
lymph node,
755
, 756
f
pulmonary, 814
f
,
815
renal,
955
, 955
f
splenic, 757
f
Hindbrain (rhombencephalon),
429
,
429
f
Hindgut, 898, 899
f
, 1076
f
Hinge joints, 258,
260
f
Hinge region (antibody), 781, 781
f
Hip bones (coxal bones/os coxae),
234–235,
234
, 235
f
, 236
f
,
243
t
Hip dysplasia, 245
Hip fracture, 238
in osteoporosis, 192, 245
Hip (pelvic) girdle, 200
f
,
234
–238,
235
f
, 236
f
, 237
t
, 243
t
Hip (coxal) joint, 234, 255
t
,
266
–267,
267
f
artificial/replacement, 271
b
muscles crossing/muscles acting
on, 327
f
, 363–369
t
, 364
f
,
367–368
f
Hippocampus, 437, 449, 449
f
,
450
brain dysfunction and, 464
in memory, 450, 457
f
, 458
Hirsutism, 159,
630
His bundle (atrioventricular bundle),
675
, 675
f
Histamine, 414, 415
t
,
767
, 770
t
, 795,
866
in basophils, 642
digestion/gastric secretion and,
866
, 868
t
, 870
Hemodialysis,
978
Hemoglobin, 51
t
, 634,
635
, 635
f
, 828
abnormal, 639–640, 639
f
in sickle-cell anemia,
639
–640,
639
f
, 1100
in thalassemia, 639
as buffer, 1006
carbon dioxide transport in, 635,
829–832, 833
f
fetal, 640,
654
oxygen transport in, 635,
828–829, 830–831
f
, 831
f
, 832
f
reduced (deoxyhemoglobin),
635
,
828
skin color affected by,
156
in urine, 980
t
Hemoglobin F (fetal hemoglobin),
640,
654
Hemoglobin S (HbS), 639, 639
f
Hemoglobin saturation, 828–829,
830–831
f
, 832
f
altitude affecting, 839
Hemoglobinuria, 980
t
Hemolysis, transfusion reaction
causing, 652–653
Hemolytic anemia, 639
Hemolytic disease of newborn,
652
Hemophilias (hemophilia A/B and
C),
650
–651
Hemopoiesis (hematopoiesis),
636
,
654
bone marrow as site of, 177, 636,
654
Hemorrhagic anemia, 638
Hemorrhoidal veins, 888–890, 888
f
Hemorrhoids, 699, 890
Hemosiderin,
637
, 638
f
Hemostasis,
646
–651, 646
f
, 647
t
,
648
f
, 649
f
Henle’s loop.
See
Nephron loop
Henry’s law,
824
–825
Heparin,
649
, 650
in mast cells, 128, 649
Hepatic artery,
878
, 879
f
common, 730
f
, 731
f
,
731
t
Hepatic artery proper, 730
f
, 731
f
,
731
t
Hepatic ducts, 875
f
, 878
common, 875
f
,
878
Hepatic (right colic) flexure,
887
, 888
f
Hepatic (stellate) macrophages,
697
,
766,
878
, 880
f
Hepatic portal system, 721,
742
t
, 854
Hepatic portal vein, 737
f
, 742–743
f
,
742
t
,
878
, 879
f
Hepatic veins, 736–737
f
, 742–743
f
,
742
t
, 879
f
Hepatitis,
881
Hepatocyte(s),
878
–881, 880
f
metabolic functions of, 935–938,
937
t
Hepatopancreatic ampulla,
875
, 875
f
Hepatopancreatic sphincter,
875
,
875
f
, 883
Herceptin.
See
Trastuzumab
Heredity, 1095–1107.
See also
Chromosome(s); Gene(s)
case study and, 1107
b
environmental factors in gene
expression and, 1102
genetic screening/counseling/
therapy and, 1103–1105, 1104
f
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