Index
I-23
Granzymes,
789
, 789
f
, 792
t
Graves’ disease, 603
t
, 609
f
,
610
, 794
Gray commissure,
466
, 467
f
Gray matter,
393
, 430
of brain
brain stem, 443
cerebellar, 447
cerebral, 438
f
, 450
t
.
See also
Cerebral cortex
periaqueductal, 444
of spinal cord, 466–468, 467
f
Gray ramus communicans/rami
communicantes, 529
t
, 530
f
,
531
Great cardiac vein, 663–664
f
,
670
,
670
f
, 737
f
Greater auricular nerve, 503
f
, 503
t
Greater curvature of stomach, 865
f
,
866
Greater omentum,
866
, 889
f
Greater sciatic notch,
235
, 236
f
, 237
t
Greater sphenoid wing, 203
f
, 204
f
,
205
f
, 206
f
, 207
f
,
209
, 209
f
Greater trochanter,
238
, 239
f
Greater tubercle,
228
, 230
f
Greater vestibular glands, 1035
f
,
1040
f
,
1041
Great saphenous vein, 737
f
, 744
f
,
744
t
Great toe (hallux),
242
, 243
t
Green cones, 554
f
, 559
Greenstick fracture, 190
t
Gristle, 134.
See also
Hyaline cartilage
Groove (bone marking), 179, 180
t
Gross (macroscopic) anatomy,
2
Ground substance,
127
, 128
f
, 129
t
of areolar connective tissue, 130,
131
f
of cartilage, 129
t
, 132
Group A fibers,
406
Group B fibers,
406
Group C fibers,
406
Growth,
8
cell division and, 8, 98–99
growth hormone affecting, 603,
604
f
Growth arrest lines, 183
Growth cone,
423
, 423
f
Growth cycle(s), hair, 159
Growth factor(s)
bone storage of, 177
hepatocyte secretion of, 881
Growth hormone (GH/
somatotropin), 51
t
, 601
f
,
602
–605, 602
t
, 604
f
, 605
f
bone growth and, 186, 187
growth/protein synthesis and,
603, 604
f
, 910
metabolism and, 602–603, 604
f
,
936
t
Growth hormone–inhibiting
hormone (GHIH/
somatostatin), 416
t
, 417, 601
f
,
602
t
, 603
t
,
604
,
866
–867
digestion/gastric secretion and,
866
–867, 868
t
pancreas producing, 618
Growth hormone–releasing hormone
(GHRH), 601
f
, 602
t
,
603
–604
Growth hormone replacement
therapy, 604–605
Growth (proliferation) zone
(epiphyseal plate), 185, 186
f
Gonadal arteries, 725
f
, 730
f
, 732
f
,
732
t
, 1022
Gonadal hormones, in male
reproductive function, 1033,
1034
f
Gonadal ridges,
1055
, 1056
f
Gonadal veins, 736
f
, 742–743
f
,
742
t
Gonadocorticoids, 612,
615
, 616
t
.
See
also
Sex hormones
Gonadotropic cells,
605
, 1033
Gonadotropin(s),
605
, 620.
See also
Follicle-stimulating hormone;
Luteinizing hormone
in female reproductive function,
1047, 1048–1049, 1048
f
,
1049–1050, 1050
f
human chorionic (hCG),
1070
–1071, 1072
f
in male reproductive function,
1033, 1034
f
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone
(GnRH), 601
f
, 603
t
,
605
,
1033
in female reproductive function,
1047, 1048–1049, 1048
f
in male reproductive function,
1033
–1034, 1034
f
Gonorrhea,
1053
pelvic inflammatory disease and,
1038, 1053
Gout/gouty arthritis,
272
gp120/gp41 glycoprotein, HIV
infection and, 793
G protein(s),
81
, 82
f
, 419,
594
in hormone mechanism of action,
594
, 594
f
in taste transduction, 569
G protein–linked (metabotropic)
receptors,
81
, 82
f
,
420
–421,
420
f
in smell transduction, 567, 567
f
Gracilis muscle, 326
f
, 364
f
,
365
t
, 380
t
Graded muscle responses,
294
–296,
295
f
, 296
f
Graded potentials, 399,
399
–400,
400
f
, 412–413
t
action potentials compared with,
412–413
t
on dendrites and cell body, 391
information processing in retina
and, 561–562, 562
f
information transfer at chemical
synapse and, 409
f
, 410
postsynaptic potentials as, 410,
413
t
sensory integration at receptor
level and, 488
Gram molecular weight, 30
Grand mal (tonic-clonic) seizures,
453
Granular (juxtaglomerular/JG) cells,
962
f
,
963
renin release/blood pressure and,
963, 968
Granulation tissue,
142
, 143
f
in bone repair, 191, 191
f
Granule cells, amacrine, 567
Granulocyte-colony-stimulating
factor (G-CSF), 642
Granulocytes, 640,
640
–642, 641
f
,
643
f
, 644
t
.
See also
specific type
Granulomas, infectious, 771
Granulosa cells,
1036
, 1045
Glutamic acid, 928, 928
f
Glutamine, renal metabolism of,
ammonium ion excretion and,
1008, 1009
f
Gluteal arteries
inferior, 734
f
,
734
t
superior, 734–735
f
,
734
t
Gluteal lines, posterior/anterior/
inferior,
235
, 236
f
Gluteal nerves (superior and
inferior), 508
f
,
509
, 509
t
Gluteal surface, of ilium, 235
Gluteal tuberosity,
238
, 239
f
Gluten-sensitive enteropathy (celiac
disease), 898
Gluteus maximus muscle, 327
f
,
363
t
,
366
t
, 367–368
f
, 380
t
Gluteus medius muscle, 327
f
,
363
t
,
366
t
, 367–368
f
, 380
t
Gluteus minimus muscle,
363
t
,
366
t
,
380
t
Glycerol,
45
, 45
f
as glucose source, 933, 934
f
oxidation of, 926, 926
f
, 929
t
Glycine, 48
f
, 416
t
,
417
Glycocalyx, 64
f
,
65
–66, 66
f
Glycogen, 43, 44
f
, 892
breakdown of (glycogenolysis),
618, 619
f
,
925
, 925
f
, 929
t
, 933,
934
f
formation of (glycogenesis),
925
,
925
f
, 929
t
as glucose source, 933, 934
f
Glycogenesis,
925
, 925
f
, 929
t
Glycogenolysis, 618, 619
f
,
925
, 925
f
,
929
t
, 933, 934
f
Glycogen phosphorylase, 925, 925
f
Glycogen storage disease, 948
Glycogen synthase, 925, 925
f
Glycolipids,
65
in plasma membrane, 63, 64
f
,
65
in Tay-Sachs disease, 87
Glycolysis/glycolytic pathway,
298
299, 914, 914
f
, 916–917, 917
f
,
918
–919, 918
f
, 924
f
, 929
t
muscle activity and,
298
–299,
299
f
, 300
f
, 311
t
Glycolytic fibers,
302
fast,
302
, 303, 303
f
, 303
t
Glycoproteins, 64
f
Glycosaminoglycans, 127
Glycosomes,
279
Glycosuria, 620, 621
t
, 980
t
GnRH.
See
Gonadotropin-releasing
hormone
Goblet cells,
124
, 125
f
, 877
in respiratory mucosa of nose, 805
in small intestine, 876
f
, 877
Goiter,
609
, 609
f
G
olf
, 567, 567
f
Golgi apparatus, 63
f
,
85
, 85
f
, 86
f
,
87
f
, 94
t
Gomphoses, 250
f
,
251
Gonad(s), 592
f
,
620
,
1018
,
1019
.
See
also
Ovaries; Testes
aging affecting, 623
arteries of, 725
f
, 730
f
, 732
f
,
732
t
,
1022
descent of, 1055–1057
differentiation of, 1055, 1056
f
hormones produced by, 620
veins of, 736
f
, 742–743
f
,
742
t
in gustatory pathway, 499
t
,
569
,
570
f
injury/inflammation of, 499
t
parasympathetic fibers of, 499
t
,
528
, 528
f
salivation control and, 859
Glottis, 807
f
,
808
, 808
f
, 809
GLP-1.
See
Glucagon-like peptide 1
Glucagon, 618,
618
, 619
f
,
933
, 934
f
in food intake regulation, 940,
940
f
metabolism and, 618, 619
f
,
933
–934, 935
f
, 936
t
pancreatic islets producing, 618,
618
f
in postabsorptive state regulation,
933
–934, 935
f
Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1),
622
t
Glucoamylase,
892
, 893
f
Glucocorticoids, 612,
614
–615, 616
t
,
1000
protein synthesis/growth and,
910–911
in sodium regulation,
1000
in stress response, 605, 614, 617
f
Gluconeogenesis, 614, 618, 925, 929
t
Glucose, 43, 44
f
, 892, 893
f
,
908
absorption of, 896, 897
f
in absorptive state, 931–932, 931
f
,
932, 932
f
aging affecting levels of, 623
in ATP formation, 36, 36
f
, 37, 43,
55, 56
conservation of, 933
in diabetes mellitus, 620, 933
in food intake regulation, 940, 940
f
insulin/glucagon in regulation of,
618–620, 619
f
,
933
–934, 935
f
metabolism of, 37, 914
f
, 917–928,
917
f
, 929
t
aging and, 948
gluconeogenesis in, 614, 618,
925, 929
t
glycogenesis and
glycogenolysis in, 924–
925, 925
f
, 929
t
, 933, 934
f
liver in, 933, 934
f
, 937
t
oxidation in, 917
f
, 918–924,
920
f
, 921
f
, 922
f
, 923
f
, 924
f
molecular weight of, 30
in postabsorptive state, 933, 934
f
,
935
f
sources of, 933, 934
f
transport of, 932
in urine, 620, 621
t
, 980
t
Glucose-1-phosphate, 925, 925
f
Glucose-6-phosphatase, 917–918,
925, 925
f
Glucose-6-phosphate, 925, 925
f
Glucose-dependent insulinotropic
peptide (gastric inhibitory
peptide/GIP), 622
t
, 868
t
Glucose sparing, 603,
933
Glucose tolerance, aging affecting, 623
Glucose transporters, 932
saturation of, urinary excretion of
glucose and, 970
Glutamate, 416
t
,
417
in cerebrovascular accident, 463
cocaine abuse and, 419
b
in pain perception, 489
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