I-22
Index
Gestation period,
1065
GH.
See
Growth hormone
Ghrelin (Ghr), 622
t
, 940, 940
f
Gigantism, 187, 602
t
,
604
, 605
f
Gingiva (gum), 856
f
,
860
, 860
f
Gingival disease, 861
Gingival sulcus, 860
f
, 861
Gingivitis,
861
GIP.
See
Gastric inhibitory peptide;
Glucose-dependent
insulinotropic peptide
GI tract.
See
Gastrointestinal (GI)
tract
Glabella,
202
, 203
f
Gland(s)/glandular epithelia, 118,
124
–125, 125
f
, 126
f
.
See also
specific type
autonomic innervation/effects
and, 536
t
cutaneous, 160–162, 161
f
endocrine (ductless),
124
.
See also
Endocrine system/glands
exocrine,
124
–125, 125
f
, 126
f
.
See
also
Exocrine glands
innervation of, 511
Glans of clitoris, 1040
f
,
1041
, 1057
f
Glans penis, 1019
f
,
1022
, 1023
f
, 1057
f
Glassy membrane, 158, 158
f
Glaucoma,
553
Gleevec.
See
Imatinib
Glenohumeral (shoulder) joint, 254
t
,
264, 264
f
muscles crossing, 326
f
, 327
f
,
350–352
t
, 351–352
f
, 358
t
Glenohumeral ligaments,
264
, 265
f
Glenoid cavity,
228
, 229
f
Glenoid labrum,
264
, 265
f
Glial cells (neuroglia), 140,
388
–390,
389
f
Gliding body movements,
256
, 256
f
at temporomandibular joint,
268–269, 268
f
Globin,
635
, 635
f
Globular (G) actin, 281
Globular (functional) proteins, 49
f
,
50
, 51
t
Globulin(s), 633
t
Globus pallidus, 438
f
,
439
, 439
f
Glomerular capillaries.
See
Glomerulus/glomerular
capillaries
Glomerular (Bowman’s) capsule,
958–960,
958
, 959
f
, 961
f
Glomerular filtration, 963, 963
f
, 964
f
,
965
–968, 965
f
, 967
f
Glomerular filtration rate,
966
, 978
aging affecting, 985
regulation of, 966–968, 967
f
Glomerular mesangial cells, 962
f
, 965
Glomeruli (olfactory bulb), 566
f
,
567
Glomerulonephritis, 794,
988
,
996–997
Glomerulus/glomerular capillaries,
958
, 959
f
, 961
f
, 962, 964
f
colloid osmotic pressure in, 965
f
,
966
hydrostatic pressure in,
965
, 965
f
,
966
Glossopharyngeal nerve (cranial
nerve IX), 444
f
, 445
f
, 446,
493
f
,
499
t
,
500
,
528
, 528
f
,
569
, 570
f
diabetes mellitus and, 624
b
, 625
b
expression of
environmental factors in, 1102
regulation of, 1102–1103
hypertension and, 711
linked,
1098
, 1098
f
obesity and, 942
b
pairs of (alleles),
1096
–1097.
See
also
Allele(s)
recombination of, 1098, 1098
f
General senses, receptors for, 485–
487,
485
, 485–486
t
.
See also
Sensory receptors
General visceral motor system,
524
.
See also
Autonomic nervous
system
Generator potential, 399,
488
Gene therapy, 1104
in cancer treatment, 146
b
for muscular dystrophy, 313
for Parkinson’s disease, 464
Genetic code,
104
, 104
f
Genetic counseling, 1103–1104, 1104
f
Genetic disorders
dominant, 1099
recessive, 1100
Genetic recombination, 1098, 1098
f
Genetics, 1095–1096.
See also
Inheritance
vocabulary of, 1095–1097, 1096
f
Genetic screening, 1103–1104, 1104
f
Genetic sex, determination of,
1054–1055
Genetic theory of aging, 111
Genetic variation, sexual sources of,
1097–1099, 1097
f
, 1098
f
Geniculate ganglion, 497
t
Geniculate nuclei
lateral, 441, 442
f
,
563
, 564
f
, 565
medial, 441, 442
f
,
579
, 579
f
Genioglossus muscle,
332
t
, 333
f
Geniohyoid muscle,
334
t
, 335
f
Genital(s)/genitalia
autonomic innervation/effects
and, 527
f
, 528
f
, 532
f
embryologic/fetal development
of, 1055, 1057
f
female
external,
1035
, 1035
f
, 1040
f
,
1041
internal,
1035
, 1035
f
, 1037
f
male, external, 1019–1020, 1019
f
,
1020
f
,
1022
–1023, 1022
f
, 1023
f
Genital herpes,
1054
Genital tubercle,
1055
, 1057
f
Genital warts,
1054
Genitofemoral nerve, 507
f
, 507
t
Genome, 53,
1096
.
See also
DNA;
Gene(s); Heredity
Genomic imprinting,
1102
–1103
Genotype,
1097
, 1099, 1099
f
in cancer therapy, 146
b
Germ cells, primordial,
1055
Germinal centers,
755
, 756
f
Germinal epithelium, of ovary, 1036,
1036
f
Germ layers
differentiation of,
1076
–1081,
1076
f
, 1077
f
, 1078
f
, 1079
f
, 1080
f
formation of, 1073
f
,
1075
–1076,
1075
f
primary,
144
, 144
f
, 1073
f
Gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP/
glucose-dependent
insulinotropic peptide), 622
t
,
868
t
Gastric juice,
866
, 867, 885
t
in body defense, 770
t
regulation of secretion of,
870–872, 871
f
, 872
f
Gastric lipase, 866, 893
f
Gastric motility, 873–874, 873
f
, 874
f
Gastric phase, of gastric secretion,
870
–871, 871
f
, 872
f
Gastric pits,
866
, 867
f
Gastric ulcers,
869
, 869
f
, 905
Gastric vein, 743
f
Gastrin, 622
t
,
867
, 868
t
, 870, 871
f
, 886
t
intestinal (enteric), 622
t
, 868
t
,
871
f
,
872
Gastritis, 869
Gastrocnemius muscle, 326
f
, 327
f
, 371
f
,
372
f
,
373
t
, 374–375
f
, 380
t
Gastrocolic reflex,
890
Gastroduodenal artery, 730
f
, 731
f
,
731
t
Gastroenteritis,
899
Gastroepiploic artery
leF, 730
f
, 731
f
,
731
t
right, 730
f
, 731
f
,
731
t
Gastroepiploic vein, right, 743
f
Gastroesophageal reflux disease
(GERD), 862
Gastroesophageal (cardiac) sphincter,
862
Gastroileal reflex,
886
, 886
t
Gastrointestinal (GI) tract
(alimentary canal),
850
, 850
f
.
See also
specific structure and
Digestive system
autonomic innervation/effects
and, 528
f
, 532
f
, 536
t
, 540
b
development of, 898–901, 899
f
,
1077, 1077
f
endocrine (enteroendocrine) cells
in, 621
enteric nervous system of, 533,
852, 853
f
, 854
f
, 855
histology of, 854–855, 854
f
hormones produced by, 621, 622
t
neural signals from, food intake
regulation and, 939, 940
f
pregnancy and, 1083
processes occurring in, 851–852,
851
f
, 885
t
thyroid hormone affecting, 607
t
Gastrointestinal liners, 943
b
Gastrula,
1074
Gastrulation, 1073
f
,
1075
–1076,
1075
f
Gated channels, 69, 81, 396–397,
396
f
.
See also
specific type
G cells,
870
, 871
f
GDP (guanosine diphosphate), 594
Gemellus muscles, 368
f
,
368
t
, 380
t
Gender
basal metabolic rate and, 941
genetic, determination of,
1054–1055
Gene(s), 53,
99
–102, 1095.
See also
Heredity
activation of, in hormone
mechanism of action, 595, 596
f
carcinogenesis and, 145
b
Gallstones,
882
Gamete intrafallopian transfer
(GI±T), 1089
Gametes,
1018
.
See also
Ova; Sperm
meiosis in formation of, 1027,
1028
f
, 1030
f
, 1031
f
, 1043,
1044
f
, 1045
Gamete variability, 1097–1099, 1097
f
,
1098
f
Gamma (γ)-aminobutyric acid
(GABA), 415
t
,
417
in Parkinson’s disease, 464
Gamma (γ) efferent fibers,
514
, 514
f
Gamma globulin, 633
t
,
780
.
See also
Antibodies
passive immunity and, 780, 780
f
Gamma (γ) interferon, 770
t
, 771, 787,
790
t
Gamma (γ) motor neurons, 514, 517
Gamma (γ) rays, 28
Ganglia,
390
,
490
–491.
See also
specific type
autonomic,
525
, 526
f
, 529
t
Ganglion cells, retinal, 550
f
,
551
, 565
Ganglionic (postganglionic) neuron,
525
, 526
f
Gap 1 (G
1
) checkpoint (restriction
point), 97
f
, 99
Gap 1 (G
1
) subphase,
97
, 97
f
, 100
f
Gap 2 (G
2
) checkpoint, 97
f
, 99
Gap 2 (G
2
) subphase,
97
, 97
f
, 100
f
Gap junction(s),
67
, 67
f
in cardiac muscle, 311
t
, 671, 672
f
in nervous tissue (electrical
synapses),
407
in smooth muscle, 307, 307
f
,
311
t
Gardasil vaccine, 1038
Gas (flatus), 890
Gases, 24
basic properties of, 824–825, 825
t
exchanges of among blood/lungs/
tissues, 811, 813
f
, 824–828,
825
t
, 826
f
, 827
f
exchanges of among fluid
compartments, 993, 993
f
as neurotransmitters, 416
t
, 417
partial pressures of,
824
, 825
t
Gas exchange, 811, 813
f
, 824–828,
825
t
, 826
f
, 827
f
.
See also
Respiratory gases
internal respiration and,
802
,
827–828
pulmonary (external respiration),
802
, 825–827, 826
f
, 827
f
Gas flow, resistance to.
See
Airway
resstance
Gas (air) movements, nonrespiratory,
823
, 824
t
Gasotransmitters, 416
t
, 417
Gas transport, 635, 716, 716
f
,
802
,
828–832, 830–831
f
, 832
f
, 833
f
Gastric accommodation,
873
Gastric arteries
leF, 730
f
, 731
f
,
731
t
right, 730
f
, 731
f
,
731
t
Gastric contractile activity, 873–874,
873
f
Gastric emptying, 874, 874
f
Gastric glands, 866–867,
866
, 867
f
autonomic innervation/effects
and, 536
t
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