Index
I-21
Free ribosomes, 83
Frenulum
labial, 856
f
,
857
lingual, 856
f
,
857
Frequency (action potential),
stimulus coding and, 404, 405
f
Frequency (sound wave),
576
, 576
f
Frequency (urinary), infection and,
982
Friction ridges,
154
–155, 155
f
Friction rub, pericardial, 661
Frontal belly, of epicranius, 326
f
,
329
f
,
329
t
, 331
f
Frontal bone,
202
, 203
f
, 204
f
, 205
f
,
207
f
,
216
t
, 244
f
, 803, 803
f
Frontal eye field, 434
f
,
435
Frontal lobe,
431
, 432
f
Frontal (coronal) plane/section,
14
, 15
f
Frontal processes, 211
f
,
212
,
217
t
Frontal sinuses, 202, 205
f
, 214
f
, 215
f
,
804
f
Frontonasal suture, 202, 203
f
Frostbite, 946
Fructose, 43, 44
f
, 892, 893
f
absorption of, 896, 897
f
FSH.
See
Follicle-stimulating
hormone
Fulcrum, in lever system,
323
,
323–324
f
, 325
f
Full-thickness burns, 166, 166
f
Functional brain systems, 449–451,
450–451
t
Functional groups, 42
amino acid, 47, 48
f
Functional layer (stratum
functionalis) of endometrium,
1039
, 1039
f
Functional MRI (fMRI),
17
b
, 433
f
Functional (globular) proteins, 49
f
,
50
, 51
t
Functional residual capacity,
822
, 822
f
Functional syncytium, cardiac muscle
as,
671
Fundus
of eye,
551
, 551
f
of stomach,
865
, 865
f
of uterus, 1037
f
,
1038
Fungiform papillae,
568
, 568
f
,
857
, 857
f
Funiculi (columns), white, 467
f
,
468
Furosemide, 976
Fused (complete) tetanus,
295
, 295
f
Fusiform muscles,
322
, 322
f
Fusion inhibitors, for HIV infection/
AIDS, 793
G
0
phase,
97
G
1
(gap 1) checkpoint (restriction
point), 97
f
, 99
G
1
(gap 1) subphase,
97
, 97
f
, 100
f
G
2
(gap 2) checkpoint, 97
f
, 99
G
2
(gap 2) subphase,
97
, 97
f
, 100
f
GABA.
See
γ-Aminobutyric acid
G (globular) actin, 281
Galactose, 43, 44
f
, 892, 893
f
absorption of, 896, 897
f
Galactosemia, 948
Gallbladder, 850
f
, 875
f
, 878, 879
f
, 882,
883, 884
f
, 885
t
autonomic innervation/effects
and, 527
f
, 528
f
, 532
f
, 536
t
, 884
developmental aspects of, 899
propulsion of through digestive
system,
851
, 851
f
, 885
t
.
See
also
Peristalsis
Food guide pyramids, 907, 907
f
Food-induced thermogenesis,
943
–944
Foot
arches of, 242, 242
f
muscles supporting, 376–377
t
,
377
f
, 379
f
bones of, 241–243, 241
f
, 243
t
dorsal venous arch of, 744
f
,
744
t
intrinsic muscles of/muscles
acting on, 376–377
t
, 377
f
, 379
f
Footdrop, 509
Foot processes,
960
, 964
f
, 965
Foramen (bone marking), 179, 180
t
Foramen lacerum, 206
f
, 207
f
,
208
Foramen magnum,
202
, 206
f
, 207
f
,
216
t
Foramen ovale (heart), 662,
686
, 686
f
,
745,
1079
, 1080
f
closure of, 1080
f
, 1087
Foramen ovale (skull), 206
f
, 207
f
,
209
f
,
210
,
216
t
Foramen rotundum, 207
f
, 209
f
,
210
,
216
t
Foramen spinosum, 206
f
, 207
f
, 209
f
,
210
,
216
t
Forced convection, heat loss by, 945
Forced expiration, 819
Forced expiratory volume,
823
Forced (deep) inspiration, 819
Forced vital capacity,
823
Forearm
bones of, 231–232, 231
f
, 233
t
muscles of/muscles controlling
movement of, 326
f
, 327
f
,
351–352
f
, 353
t
, 354–357
t
,
355
f
, 357
f
, 358
t
Forebrain (prosencephalon),
429
, 429
f
Foregut, 898, 899
f
, 1076
f
, 1077
Forehead, 202, 203
f
Foreskin (prepuce), 1019
f
,
1022
, 1023
f
Formed elements of blood, 632, 632
f
,
634
–636, 634
f
, 641
f
, 644
t
.
See
also
Blood cells
Fornix,
449
limbic system, 434
f
, 440
f
, 442
f
,
449
, 449
f
vaginal, 1035
f
,
1040
Fossa(e) (bone marking), 179, 180
t
Fossa ovalis,
662
, 664–665
f
, 1080
f
,
1087
Fourchette, 1040
f
,
1041
Fourth ventricle, 429
f
,
430
, 431
f
Fovea capitis,
238
, 239
f
Fovea centralis, 548
f
,
551
Foveal (hard) focus, 551
Fractures, 190
t
,
191
in osteoporosis, 192, 245
pathologic,
198
repair of, 191–192, 191
f
Frank-Starling law of heart,
682
Fraternal twins, 1047
Freckles, 156
Free edge of nail, 160, 160
f
Free fatty acids, 895, 895
f
, 896
Free macrophages, 766
Free (unencapsulated) nerve endings,
151
f
, 154, 163, 395,
485
–486,
487
t
Free radicals,
85
, 111
Flexure lines,
155
, 155
f
Flexures
colic, right (hepatic) and le±
(splenic),
887
, 888
f
midbrain and cervical, 429, 430
f
Floating (vertebral) ribs, 225
f
,
226
Flocculonodular lobe,
447
, 448
f
Floor
of nasal cavity, 213–215
of orbit, 213
f
Flora (bacterial), intestinal, 890
Flower spray (secondary sensory)
endings,
514
, 514
f
Fluid(s), body.
See
Body fluids
Fluid balance.
See also
Water balance
developmental aspects of, 1012
sodium in, 997–999, 998
t
, 999
t
regulation and, 999–1000,
1000
f
, 1001
f
, 1002
f
Fluid compartments,
991
, 991
f
fluid movement among, 993, 993
f
Fluid mosaic model,
63
–65, 64
f
, 66
f
Fluid movements (bulk flow), 716–
717, 718–719
f
Fluid-phase endocytosis
(pinocytosis),
75
, 77
f
, 78
t
Fluorine, 26
t
, 915
t
Foam cells, in atherosclerosis, 700
b
Focal point(s),
554
Focusing (light on retina), 554–556,
555
f
Folacin.
See
Folic acid/folacin
Folding, embryo, 1076, 1076
f
Folia, cerebellar,
447
Foliate papillae,
568
, 568
f
,
857
, 857
f
Folic acid/folacin (vitamin B
9
), 638,
912
t
during pregnancy, 1083
ultraviolet radiation affecting, 156
Follicle(s)
hair, 151
f
,
157
–159, 158
f
lymphoid,
755
, 756
f
aggregated (Peyer’s patches),
755, 756
f
,
759
, 760
f
ovarian,
1036
, 1036
f
, 1045–1047,
1046
f
, 1050
f
.
See also
Ovarian
follicles
thyroid, 606
f
,
607
Follicle cells, ovarian,
1036
, 1043, 1044
f
Follicle retention cysts, 1063
Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH),
601
f
, 603
t
,
605
,
1033
in female reproductive function,
1045, 1047, 1048–1049, 1048
f
,
1050
f
in male reproductive function,
1033
, 1034
f
Follicular cells, thyroid, 606
f
, 607
Follicular phase of ovarian cycle,
1045–1047, 1046
f
, 1050
f
Fontanelles,
244
, 244
f
Food.
See also
Nutrient(s); Nutrition
absorption of in digestive system,
850
, 851
f
,
852
, 885
t
, 895–898,
895
f
, 897
f
.
See also
Absorption
digestion/breakdown of,
5
, 5
f
, 7
f
,
850
, 851
f
,
852
, 885
t
,
892
–895,
893
f
.
See also
Digestion
ingestion/intake of,
851
, 851
f
, 885
t
in newborn, 899
regulation of, 442, 939–941,
940
f
, 942–943
b
Fingerprints, 155, 155
f
First breath, a±er birth, 841–842, 1087
First-class lever,
324
, 325
f
First-degree burns,
165
First intention, healing by,
149
First law of thermodynamics, 938
First messenger, 82
f
, 594
in hormone mechanism of action,
594
, 594
f
First-order neurons, in ascending
pathways,
468
–469, 470
f
First polar body,
1044
, 1044
f
First (dilation) stage of labor,
1086
,
1086
f
Fission, mitochondrial, 83
Fissure (bone marking), 180
t
Fissure(s)
cerebral,
431
, 432
f
oblique and horizontal, of lung,
814
f
, 815
Fixation, tissue, for microscopy,
117
Fixator (muscle),
320
Fixed (nonvolatile) acid,
1006
Fixed macrophages, 766
Flaccid paralysis,
474
Flagella,
90
, 95
t
Flat bones,
176
, 176
f
, 177, 177
f
“Flat feet,” 243
Flatus (gas), 890
Flavin(s),
922
Flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD),
916
Fleshy (direct) muscle attachments,
278
Flexion (body movement), 256
f
, 257
f
,
258
, 321
f
of lower limb, 380
t
, 381
f
of upper limb, 358
t
, 359
f
Flexor accessorius (quadratus
plantae) muscle,
376
t
, 377
f
Flexor carpi radialis muscle, 326
f
,
354
t
, 355
f
, 358
t
Flexor carpi ulnaris muscle, 327
f
,
354
t
, 355
f
, 358
t
Flexor digiti minimi brevis muscle
of foot,
378
t
, 379
f
of hand,
360
t
, 361
f
Flexor digitorum brevis muscle,
376
t
,
377
f
Flexor digitorum longus muscle,
373
t
, 375
f
, 380
t
Flexor digitorum profundus muscle,
355
f
,
355
t
, 358
t
Flexor digitorum superficialis muscle,
355
f
,
355
t
, 358
t
Flexor hallucis brevis muscle,
378
t
,
379
f
Flexor hallucis longus muscle, 372
f
,
373
t
, 375
f
, 380
t
Flexor muscles
of forearm, 351–352
f
, 353
t
,
354–355
t
, 355
f
, 358
t
, 359
f
of leg, 370
t
of thigh, 363
t
Flexor pollicis brevis muscle,
360
t
,
361
f
Flexor pollicis longus muscle, 355
f
,
355
t
, 358
t
Flexor (withdrawal) reflex, 9,
518
, 518
f
Flexor retinacula
of forearm,
354
t
, 355
f
of leg,
370
t
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