Index
I-19
Eyelids,
545
, 545
f
muscles of, 545, 546
Eyeteeth (canines),
860
, 860
f
Face.
See also
under Facial
bones of, 201, 201
f
, 203
f
, 204
f
,
211–212, 211
f
muscles of, 326
f
, 329
f
, 329–330
t
,
331
f
Facet (bone marking), 180
t
vertebral, 220
f
, 221
Facial artery, 726
f
,
726
t
, 727
f
pulse at, 710
f
Facial bones, 201, 201
f
, 203
f
, 204
f
,
211–212, 211
f
, 217
t
Facial expression, muscles controlling
(facial muscles), 326
f
, 329
f
,
329–330
t
, 331
f
 facial nerve supplying, 329–330
t
,
497–498
t
Facial nerve (cranial nerve VII), 444
f
,
445, 445
f
,
493
, 493
f
,
497
–498
t
,
528
, 528
f
,
569
, 570
f
buccinator muscle supplied by,
332
t
facial muscles supplied by,
329–330
t
, 497–498
t
in gustatory pathway,
569
, 570
f
parasympathetic fibers of, 497
t
,
528
, 528
f
salivation control and, 859
scalp muscles supplied by, 329
t
Facial paralysis, in Bell’s palsy, 497
t
Facial vein, 738–739
f
,
738
t
Facilitated diffusion, 68–
69
, 69
f
, 72
t
Facilitated zone, 421, 421
f
Facilitation, neuron,
413
Fact (declarative) memory,
457
, 457
f
F (filamentous) actin, 281
Factor III (tissue factor), 647
t
,
648
,
648
f
Factor VIII (antihemophilic factor),
647
t
,
650
deficiency of, 650
Factor IX, deficiency of, 650
Factor X (Stuart factor), 647
t
, 648,
648
f
Factor XI, deficiency of, 650
Factor XIII (fibrin stabilizing factor),
647
t
,
648
, 648
f
Facultative water reabsorption,
969
Failure to thrive, 443
Fainting,
453
, 715.
See also
Syncope
vasovagal syncope causing,
543
Falciform ligament,
878
, 879
f
, 889
f
Fallopian (uterine) tubes, 1035, 1035
f
,
1037
–1038, 1037
f
.
See also
Uterine (fallopian) tubes
Fallot, tetralogy of, 686, 687
f
False labor,
1085
False pelvis,
238
False (vertebrochondral) ribs, 225
f
,
226
False vocal cords (vestibular folds),
804
f
, 807
f
,
808
, 808
f
Falx cerebelli,
459
, 460
f
Falx cerebri,
459
, 459
f
, 460
f
Familial hypercholesterolemia,
953
Far point of vision,
555
Farsightedness (hyperopia),
556
,
557
f
, 585
resting membrane potential and,
397, 398
f
Extracellular fluid compartment,
991
, 991
f
Extracellular fluid osmolality, 993–
997, 994
f
, 996
f
, 997
f
.
See also
Water balance
Extracellular materials,
110
Extracellular matrix, 110,
127
, 128
f
,
129
t
, 174
Extraembryonic membranes, 1073
f
,
1074
–1075
Extraembryonic mesoderm, 1073
f
Extrafusal muscle fibers,
514
, 514
f
,
515
f
Extraglomerular mesangial cells,
962
f
, 963
Extranuclear (mitochondrial)
inheritance, 1103
Extrapyramidal (indirect) pathways,
469, 471–
473
, 473
t
, 512
Extrasystole (premature contraction),
676
Extrauterine life, infant adjustment
to, 1087
Extremities.
See
Lower limbs; Upper
limbs
Extrinsic conduction system of heart,
676–677, 677
f
Extrinsic eye muscles,
546
–549, 547
f
abducens nerve supplying, 497
t
,
547, 547
f
oculomotor nerve supplying,
495
t
, 547, 547
f
trochlear nerve supplying, 495
t
,
547, 547
f
Extrinsic pathway,
647
, 648, 648
f
Extrinsic (major) salivary glands,
858
Extrinsic tongue muscles,
332
t
, 333
f
,
857
Exudate,
768
Eye,
545
–565, 545
f
.
See also
under
Visual
and Vision
accessory structures of,
545
–549,
545
f
, 546
f
, 547
f
.
See also
specific structure
autonomic innervation/effects
and, 527
f
, 528
f
, 532
f
, 536
t
,
555, 555
f
, 556
developmental aspects of, 585
eyeball structure and, 548
f
,
549
553, 549
f
, 550
f
, 551
f
, 552
f
, 553
f
internal chambers/fluids of,
552–553, 552
f
layers of, 549–552, 549
f
, 551
f
muscles controlling movement of,
546
–549, 547
f
optics and, 553–556, 554
f
, 555
f
,
557
f
photoreceptors/
phototransduction in,
551
,
556
–563, 558
f
, 559
t
, 560
f
,
561
f
, 562
f
visual pathways and processing
and, 563–565, 564
f
Eyeballs.
See also
Eye
convergence of, in close vision,
556
structure of, 548
f
,
549
–553, 549
f
,
550
f
, 551
f
, 552
f
, 553
f
Eyebrows,
545
, 545
f
Eyelashes, 545
f
,
546
Extensor indicis muscle, 357
f
,
357
t
Extensor muscles
of back, 336–338
t
, 339
f
of forearm, 351–352
f
, 353
t
, 354
t
,
356–357
t
, 357
f
, 358
t
, 359
f
of knee, 363
t
of leg, anterior, 370
t
, 371
f
of thigh, 363
t
, 367
f
Extensor pollicis brevis muscle,
356
t
,
357
f
, 358
t
Extensor pollicis longus muscle,
356
t
,
357
f
, 358
t
Extensor retinacula
of forearm,
354
t
, 356
t
of leg,
370
t
, 371
f
, 372
f
External (term), 12
t
.
See also
under
Superficial
External acoustic meatus (external
ear/auditory canal), 204
f
, 206
f
,
208
, 208
f
,
216
t
,
570
–572, 571
f
External anal sphincter,
344
t
, 345
f
,
887
, 888
f
External carotid artery, 725
f
, 726
f
,
726
t
, 727
f
External (outer) ear, 208,
570
–572,
571
f
elastic cartilage in, 134, 135
f
, 174,
175
f
External genitalia
embryologic/fetal development
of, 1055, 1057
f
in female,
1035
, 1035
f
, 1040
f
,
1041
in male, 1019–1020, 1019
f
, 1020
f
,
1022
–1023, 1022
f
, 1023
f
External iliac arteries, 725
f
, 734–735
f
,
734
t
External iliac vein, 737
f
, 742–743
f
,
744
f
,
744
t
External intercostal muscles,
340
t
,
341
f
, 818
f
, 819
External jugular vein, 736–737
f
,
738–739
f
,
738
t
, 740–741
f
External nose, 803, 803
f
, 805
t
External oblique muscle, 326
f
,
342
t
,
343
f
External occipital crest, 203, 203
f
,
206
f
,
216
t
External occipital protuberance,
202
–203, 203
f
, 205
f
, 206
f
,
216
t
External os, 1037
f
, 1038
External (closed) reduction of
fracture, 191
External respiration,
802
, 825–827,
826
f
, 827
f
External spermatic fascia, 1020
f
External strabismus, 495
t
External tension,
301
–302
External urethral orifice,
981
, 981
f
,
1019
f
, 1023
f
, 1035
f
External urethral sphincter,
344
t
,
345
f
,
981
, 981
f
Exteroceptors, 163,
484
, 485
t
, 486
t
Extracapsular ligaments, of synovial
joints,
252
Extracellular fluid, 63, 64
f
, 991, 991
f
developmental changes in, 1012
electrolytes in, 992–993, 992
f
gas/nutrient/water/waste
exchanges and, 993, 993
f
intracellular fluid compared with,
992–993, 992
f
Excitatory neurotransmitters, 415–
416
t
, 418, 525
in stroke, 463
Excitatory postsynaptic potentials
(EPSPs), 410
f
,
411
, 413
t
information processing in retina
and, 561, 562
f
summation by, 411–413, 411
f
Excitatory synapses, 411
Excitotoxin, in cerebrovascular
accident, 463
Excreta, 6
Excretion,
6
–7, 7
f
skin in, 163
Excretory system.
See
Urinary system
Executive area, in prefrontal cortex,
434
f
, 437
Exercise
adaptations to, 304–305, 838
blood flow affected by, 712, 712
f
,
713–714, 715
bone remodeling/strength
affected by, 188, 189
f
cardiac output affected by, 682,
682
f
, 705
f
energy systems used during, 300,
300
f
heart affected by, 682
f
, 684, 687
muscles affected by, 304–305
for osteoporosis prevention/
treatment, 193
respiratory adjustments during,
838
Exercise (active) hyperemia,
713
Exergonic reactions,
37
Exertion-induced heat exhaustion,
947
Exhalation.
See
Expiration
Exocrine glands,
124
–125, 125
f
, 126
f
,
592
Exocytosis, 63
f
,
77
–78, 77
f
, 78
t
, 85, 86
f
Exogenous antigens,
784
Exons,
102
mRNA processing and, 104
Exophthalmos,
590
, 609
f
, 610
Exosomes, 146
b
Expiration, 802, 818
f
, 819–820, 819
f
muscles used in, 340
t
, 341
f
, 818
f
,
819
Expiratory reserve volume,
821
, 822
f
Expulsion (second), stage of labor,
1086
, 1086
f
Extended chromatin, 96
Extensibility, muscle cell,
277
Extension (body movement), 256
f
,
257
f
,
258
, 321
f
of lower limb, 380
t
, 381
f
of upper limb, 358
t
, 359
f
Extensor carpi radialis brevis muscle,
356
t
, 357
f
, 358
t
Extensor carpi radialis longus muscle,
327
f
,
356
t
, 357
f
, 358
t
Extensor carpi ulnaris muscle, 327
f
,
356
t
, 357
f
, 358
t
Extensor digitorum muscles, 327
f
,
356
t
, 357
f
, 358
t
brevis, 371
f
, 372
f
,
376
t
longus, 326
f
,
370
t
, 371
f
, 372
f
, 380
t
Extensor hallucis brevis muscle, 371
f
,
372
f
Extensor hallucis longus muscle,
370
t
, 371
f
, 372
f
, 380
t
previous page 1223 Human Anatomy and Physiology (9th ed ) 2012 read online next page 1225 Human Anatomy and Physiology (9th ed ) 2012 read online Home Toggle text on/off