I-18
Index
Erythropoiesis,
636
, 636
f
, 638
f
regulation/requirements for,
636–638, 637
f
Erythropoietin,
621
, 622
t
,
637
, 637
f
,
638
f
, 955
deficiency of, 639
homeostatic imbalances and, 637
Eschar, 166
E site, 105, 106
f
, 107
f
Esophageal arteries,
729
t
Esophageal glands, 863
Esophageal hiatus,
862
Esophageal plexus,
528
Esophageal ulcers, 863
Esophagitis, 863
Esophagus, 850
f
, 856
f
,
862
–863, 862
f
,
885
t
Barrett’s,
904
digestive processes occurring in,
851
f
, 863–864, 864
f
, 885
t
Essential amino acids, 910, 911
f
Essential fatty acids, 908, 909
t
Essential (primary) hypertension,
711
Essential nutrients,
907
–908
Estradiol, 1034, 1035
Estriol, 1035
Estrogen(s),
620
,
1000
,
1035
, 1051,
1052
t
adrenal, 615, 616
t
bone growth and, 186
labor initiation and, 1085, 1085
f
in menopause, 1058
osteoporosis and, 192–193
in ovarian cycle, 1047, 1048–1049,
1048
f
, 1052
t
placental/during pregnancy,
1072
f
, 1073–1074
prolactin levels and, 606
in sodium regulation,
1000
in uterine (menstrual) cycle, 1049,
1050
f
, 1052
t
Estrogen (hormone) replacement
therapy, 193, 1058
Estrone, 1035
Ethmoidal air cells (sinus),
210
, 210
f
,
215
f
Ethmoid bone, 203
f
, 204
f
, 205
f
, 207
f
,
210
, 210
f
, 214
f
,
217
t
Eupnea,
834
Eustachian tube.
See
Pharyngotympanic (auditory)
tube
Evaporation, heat loss by, 163,
945
, 945
f
Eversion (body movement),
258
, 259
f
of lower limb, 380
t
, 381
f
Excess postexercise oxygen
consumption (EPOC),
301
Exchange (displacement) reactions,
36
, 36
f
Exchange transfusions,
657
for hemolytic disease of newborn,
652
Exchange vessels, in capillary bed,
698, 698
f
Excitability (responsiveness),
5
muscle cell,
277
neuron, 5, 6
f
, 400.
See also
Nerve
impulse(s)
Excitation-contraction coupling,
286
f
,
289
,
290–291
f
in cardiac muscle, 673
in smooth muscle, 307, 308
f
Epiploic appendages,
887
, 888
f
Episiotomy, 1086
Epistaxis (nosebleed),
848
Epithalamus, 429, 429
f
, 440
f
,
443
Epithelial cells.
See also
Epithelial
tissue/epithelium
taste bud, 568, 568
f
Epithelial root sheath,
158
–159, 158
f
Epithelial tissue/epithelium, 117
f
,
118
–126, 119
f
, 120–123
f
, 125
f
,
126
f
.
See also
specific type
of alimentary canal mucosa, 854
f
,
855
bronchial, 811
corneal, 549, 552
f
covering/lining, 118, 140–142,
141
f
ectoderm and endoderm as, 1076
germinal, of ovary, 1036, 1036
f
of larynx, 808
of lens of eye, 552
f
,
553
of mouth, 856
olfactory,
565
–567, 566
f
, 804
f
,
805
regeneration of, 119, 142–143,
143
f
of small intestine, 877
of stomach, 866, 867
f
of ureters, 979, 980
f
Epithelium,
118
.
See also
Epithelial
tissue/epithelium
Epitympanic recess,
572
, 572
f
Eponychium (nail cuticle),
160
, 160
f
EPSPs.
See
Excitatory postsynaptic
potentials
Epstein-Barr virus, mononucleosis
caused by, 645,
763
Equational division (meiosis II),
1028
f
,
1029
, 1030
f
, 1031
f
,
1044
f
Equator, of mitotic spindle, 101
f
Equilibrium (chemical),
37
Equilibrium/orientation, 580–584,
580
f
, 581
f
, 582
f
, 583
f
, 585.
See
also
Ear
cerebral cortex in, 436
Equilibrium (vestibular) cortex, 436
Equilibrium pathway, 582–584, 583
f
ER.
See
Endoplasmic reticulum
Erectile dysfunction (ED),
1027
Erectile tissue/bodies
in clitoris, 1041
of penis, 1022–1023, 1026
Erection, 1022,
1026
Erector spinae (sacrospinalis)
muscles,
336
t
,
338
t
, 339
f
Erythema, 156
Erythroblastosis fetalis,
652
Erythroblasts
basophilic,
636
, 636
f
orthochromatic,
636
, 636
f
polychromatic,
636
, 636
f
Erythrocytes (red blood cells), 129
t
,
137
f
, 632, 632
f
,
634
–640, 634
f
,
636
f
, 638
f
, 639
f
, 641
f
, 644
t
antigens of, blood groups and,
651
transplantation and, 790
hemoglobin in, 634, 635,
635
sickled, 639, 639
f
, 1100
transfusion of, 651–653, 653
f
,
653
t
in urine, 980
t
Enucleation,
590
Enuresis, nocturnal,
988
Environmental pollutants, endocrine
system affected by, 623
Enzyme(s)/enzyme activity, 50,
51
–53, 51
t
, 52
f
, 53
f
chemical reactions regulated by,
38, 51–52, 52–53, 52
f
Enzyme inhibitor, 53
Enzyme-substrate complex, 52–53, 53
f
Eosinophils, 128,
641
–642, 641
f
, 643
f
,
644
t
Ependymal cells,
389
, 389
f
, 430
Ephedra-containing supplements, for
weight loss, 943
b
Epiblast, 1073
f
, 1074, 1075
f
, 1079
f
Epicanthic fold, 545
Epicardium (visceral layer of serous
pericardium), 18, 19
f
, 141
f
,
660
,
661
, 661
f
, 665
f
Epicondyle (bone marking), 180
t
of femur,
238
, 239
f
of humerus,
230
, 230
f
Epicranial aponeurosis, 329
f
, 329
t
,
331
f
Epicranius (occipitofrontalis) muscle,
326
f
, 327
f
, 329
f
,
329
t
, 331
f
Epidermal dendritic cells
(Langerhans cells),
152
, 153
f
,
163
Epidermal ridges, 154, 155
f
Epidermis, 122, 140, 143
f
, 151,
151
154, 151
f
, 153
f
in body defense, 162
development of, 167
hormones produced by, 622
t
, 623
metabolic functions of, 163
Epidermolysis bullosa,
171
Epididymis, 1019, 1019
f
, 1020
f
, 1021,
1021
f
, 1023
f
,
1024
, 1056
f
Epidural space,
464
, 467
f
Epigastric region,
19
, 20
f
Epigenetic marks, 1102–1103
Epiglottis, 804
f
, 807
f
,
808
, 856
f
elastic cartilage in, 134, 174, 175
f
Epileptic seizures, 452–453
Epimysium,
278
, 279
f
, 283
t
, 310
t
Epinephrine, 414,
615
, 616, 616
t
,
707
adrenal secretion of, 533, 534
t
,
612
f
,
615
, 616, 616
t
blood pressure and,
707
, 707
t
,
709
f
cardiac contractility affected by,
683
in food intake regulation, 940,
940
f
heart rate affected by, 684, 705
f
metabolism and, 935, 936
t
stress response/sympathetic
stimulation and, 616, 617
f
Epineurium,
490
, 491
f
Epiphyseal cartilage, in longitudinal
bone growth, 185, 186
f
Epiphyseal fracture, 190
t
Epiphyseal line,
178
, 178
f
Epiphyseal plates, 134,
178
, 184, 184
f
in bone growth/remodeling, 185,
186
f
closure of, 186
as synchondroses, 251, 251
f
Epiphyses,
178
, 178
f
ossification of, 184, 184
f
Endoneurium,
490
, 491
f
Endoplasmic reticulum,
84
–85, 84
f
rough, 63
f
, 83, 84,
84
, 84
f
, 86
f
,
87
f
, 94
t
protein processing in, 105, 108
f
smooth, 63
f
,
84
–85, 84
f
, 87
f
, 94
t
Endoplasmic reticulum signal
sequence,
105
, 108
f
Endorphins, 416
t
,
417
, 489
Endoscopy,
905
Endosome, 75, 76
f
Endosteal cells, 181
Endosteum, 178
f
,
179
, 182
f
Endothelial tissue/endothelium,
120
blood vessel,
693
, 694
f
, 696
t
in atherosclerosis, 700
b
corneal, 549, 552
f
Endothelins,
713
, 714
f
Endotracheal tube,
848
End plate,
286
.
See also
Neuromuscular junction
End plate potential, 286
f
, 287
f
,
288
,
288
f
, 511
End systolic volume, 680
f
, 681,
682
,
682
f
, 705
f
Endurance exercise,
304
.
See also
Exercise
Energy,
24
–25
activation,
52
, 52
f
, 918
in active transport, 73, 74
f
, 78
t
from ATP, 24, 55–56, 56
f
chemical bonds and, 24
in chemical reactions, 24, 37
diffusion and, 68, 72
t
enzyme action and, 52, 52
f
intake–output balance and,
938
–948
for muscle contraction, 298–300,
299
f
, 300
f
in cardiac muscle, 673–674
in smooth muscle, 308
Energy balance, 938–948
Energy conversions, 24–25
Energy intake,
938
Energy investment phase of
glycolysis, 918, 918
f
Energy levels (electron shells),
31
, 31
f
Energy output,
938
Engagement, in labor, 1086
Enkephalins, 416
t
,
417
, 489
Enteric bacteria, 890
Enteric (intestinal) gastrin, 622
t
, 868
t
,
871
f
,
872
.
See also
Gastrin
Enteric nervous system/plexuses, 533,
852, 853
f
, 854
f
, 855
Enteric neurons, 533,
855
Enteric pacemaker cells, 873
Enteritis,
905
Enterochromaffin-like cells, 870
Enterocytes, 877
Enteroendocrine cells, 621,
866
–867,
867
f
in small intestine, 876
f
, 877
in stomach,
866
–867
Enterogastric reflex, 871
f
,
872
Enterogastrones,
872
Enterohepatic circulation, 881
Enterokinase.
See
Enteropeptidase
Enteropathy, gluten-sensitive (celiac
disease), 898
Enteropeptidase (enterokinase),
883
,
883
f
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