Index
I-17
Emphysema, 825,
839
–840, 839
f
Emulsion(s), 30
in lipid digestion, 893
f
, 895, 895
f
Enamel (tooth),
860
, 860
f
Encapsulated nerve endings,
486
487, 486
t
.
See also
specific type
Encephalitis, 460
Encephalopathy,
482
End diastolic volume, 680
f
, 681,
682
,
682
f
, 705
f
Endemic goiter, 609
Endergonic reactions,
37
Endocannabinoids, 416
t
,
417
Endocarditis,
690
Endocardium,
661
, 661
f
, 665
f
Endochondral (cartilage) bones,
183
Endochondral ossification, 183,
183
–185, 184
f
Endocrine glands,
592
.
See also
Endocrine system/glands
Endocrine system/glands, 6
f
,
124
,
591
–630,
592
, 592
f
.
See also
specific gland and
Hormone(s)
aging affecting, 623
autonomic nervous system and,
540
b
, 626
b
cardiovascular system and, 626
b
,
746
b
case study and, 630
b
developmental aspects of, 623
diffuse, 124
digestive system and, 626
b
, 900
b
environmental pollutants
affecting, 623
functions of, 6
f
homeostatic relationships of, 10,
626
b
hypothalamus in regulation of, 442
integumentary system and, 168
b
,
626
b
lymphatic system and, 626
b
, 761
b
muscular system and, 314
b
, 626
b
reproductive system and, 626
b
,
1059
b
respiratory system and, 626
b
, 843
b
skeletal system and, 195
b
, 626
b
stimuli activating, 596–597, 597
f
urinary system and, 626
b
, 1013
b
Endocrinology,
592
Endocytosis, 73, 73–77, 76
f
, 78
t
fluid-phase (pinocytosis),
75
,
77
f
, 78
t
receptor-mediated,
76
, 77
f
, 78
t
Endoderm,
144
, 144
f
, 1073
f
, 1075
f
,
1076
, 1078
f
differentiation of, 1076
f
, 1077,
1077
f
, 1079
f
Endogenous antigen,
784
Endolymph,
573
, 574
f
, 575
equilibrium and, 581, 582
f
Ménière’s syndrome and,
584
Endomembrane system, 83,
87
, 87
f
Endometrial cancer,
1063
Endometriosis,
1063
Endometrium, 1037
f
,
1039
, 1039
f
in uterine (menstrual) cycle, 1049,
1050
f
Endomysium,
278
cardiac muscle, 310
t
, 671
skeletal muscle,
278
, 279
f
, 283
t
,
310
t
smooth muscle, 305, 310
t
Electromyography,
384
Electron(s),
25
, 25
f
, 27
f
chemical bonds and, 31, 31
f
Electron acceptor, 32, 36
Electron cloud, 25
f
, 26
Electron donor, 32, 36
Electronegativity,
34
Electroneutrality,
42
, 395
Electron microscopy, 118
Electron sharing, in covalent bonds,
32–34
Electron shells (energy levels),
31
, 31
f
Electron transport chain, 914
f
, 916
f
,
917
f
,
920
–923, 921
f
, 922
f
,
923
f
, 924
f
, 929
t
Electropositive atoms,
34
Elements,
25
–28, 26
t
atomic structure and, 25, 27
chemically inert, 31, 31
f
chemically reactive, 31, 31
f
identifying, 27
Elephantiasis,
763
Elevation (body movement),
258
,
259
f
, 268
Ellipsoidal (condylar) joints, 258,
261
f
Elongation
in transcription, 103, 103
f
in translation, 105, 107
f
Embolism/embolus/emboli,
650
,
848
Embryo,
1065
, 1065
f
blood supply for (fetal
circulation), 745, 1074
f
,
1079–1081, 1080
f
cleavage/blastocyst formation
and,
1067
, 1071
f
folding of, 1076, 1076
f
implantation of,
1067
–1071,
1071
f
, 1072
f
sexually indifferent stage of,
1055
,
1056
f
, 1057
f
testosterone in, 1034, 1034
f
, 1035
Embryology,
2
.
See also
Embryonic
period; Fetal period
Embryonic disc, 1067, 1073
f
,
1074
,
1075
f
, 1076
f
Embryonic period, 1065
cleavage/blastocyst formation,
1067
, 1071
f
extraembryonic membrane
formation, 1073
f
,
1074
–1075
gastrulation/germ layer
formation, 1073
f
,
1075
–1076,
1075
f
implantation,
1067
–1071, 1071
f
,
1072
f
organogenesis (germ layer
differentiation),
1076
–1081,
1076
f
, 1077
f
, 1078
f
, 1079
f
,
1080
f
placentation,
1071
–1074, 1073
f
Emergency contraceptive pills, 1090
b
,
1091
b
Emesis (vomiting)/emetic center,
874
Emmetropic eye,
555
, 557
f
e-Mosquito, 624
b
Emotional brain, 449.
See also
Limbic
system
Emotional memory,
457
Emotions
hypothalamus and, 442
limbic association area/limbic
system and, 436, 437, 449
Efferent nerves/neurons/tracts.
See
Motor (efferent) nerves;
Motor (efferent) neurons;
Motor (descending)
pathways/tracts
Efferent pathway
in autonomic versus somatic
nervous system, 525, 526
f
in homeostasis, 9, 9
f
Effort, in lever system,
323
, 323–324
f
,
325
f
Eggs.
See
Ova
Eicosanoid(s), 46
t
,
47
,
593
Eights, rule of (octet rule),
31
Ejaculation, 1024,
1026
–1027
from epididymis, 1024
Ejaculatory duct, 1019, 1019
f
, 1023
f
,
1024
Elastic (conducting) arteries,
695
,
695
f
, 696
t
Elastic cartilage, 129
t
,
134
, 135
f
,
174
,
175
f
Elastic connective tissue, 129
t
,
132
, 134
f
Elastic fibers,
127
, 128
f
, 134
f
bronchial, 812, 813
f
in dermis, 155, 156
in lung, 815
in vocal folds, 808
Elastic (titin) filaments, 280
f
,
281
–282
Elasticity, muscle cell,
277
Elastic membrane, arterial, 694
f
, 696
Elastin, 50, 51
t
, 127, 695
Elbow
articulation at, 230
f
, 231–232
muscles of, 351–352
f
, 353
t
, 358
t
,
359
f
student’s (olecranon bursitis), 270
Elbow joint, 254
t
, 266, 266
f
muscles crossing/controlling
movement of, 351–352
f
, 353
t
,
358
t
, 359
f
Electrical energy,
24
Electrical gradient, 397
Electrically coupled neurons, 407
Electrical signaling, 81
Electrical synapses,
407
Electricity, basic principles of,
395–397, 396
f
Electrocardiograph/
electrocardiogram (ECG),
677
–678, 677
f
, 678
f
, 680
f
Electrochemical gradient,
73
, 80,
397
Electrochemical proton (H
1
)
gradient, 921
f
,
922
Electroencephalogram/
electroencephalography
(EEG),
452
–453, 453
f
during sleep, 452, 453
f
, 454, 454
f
, 455
Electrolysis, 159
Electrolyte(s),
39
,
991
–992, 992
f
absorption of, 897–898
in body fluids, 992–993, 992
f
in plasma, 633
t
, 992, 992
f
salts as,
39
Electrolyte balance,
997
–1004, 1000
f
,
1001
f
, 1002
f
developmental aspects of, 1012
Electrolyte imbalances, 39, 997, 998
t
heart rate and, 684
Electromagnetic (radiant) energy,
24
Electromagnetic radiation,
553
, 554
f
Electromagnetic spectrum, 24
Ear, 570–584, 571
f
.
See also
specific
region and
Equilibrium/
orientation; Hearing
developmental aspects of, 585
external (outer), 208,
570
–572,
571
f
elastic cartilage in, 134, 135
f
,
174, 175
f
internal (inner), 208, 571
f
,
572
–575, 573
f
, 574
f
, 576
t
sound transmission to, 577,
577
f
middle,
20
, 208, 571
f
,
572
, 572
f
structure of, 570–575, 571
f
, 572
f
,
573
f
, 574
f
, 576
t
Earache (otalgia),
590
Ear canal, auditory/external (external
acoustic meatus), 204
f
, 206
f
,
208
, 208
f
,
216
t
,
570
–572, 571
f
Eardrum (tympanic membrane),
571
f
,
572
, 572
f
, 577, 577
f
perforated/ruptured, 584
Earlobes (lobule),
570
, 571
f
Earwax (cerumen), 161,
572
Eating.
See
Ingestion
Eccentric contraction,
296
Eccrine (merocrine) sweat glands,
151
f
,
160
–161, 161
f
ECF.
See
Extracellular fluid
ECG.
See
Electrocardiograph
Ecstasy abuse, 419
b
Ectoderm,
144
, 144
f
, 1073
f
, 1075
f
,
1076
differentiation of, 1076
f
, 1077,
1078
f
, 1079
f
neural plate and, 475, 475
f
,
1077
, 1078
f
Ectopic focus,
676
Ectopic pregnancy, 1038,
1094
Eczema,
171
,
800
Edema,
130
,
996
–997
cerebral,
463
, 715
in heart failure, 685
hypertonic solutions for, 72
in inflammation, 130, 767, 768,
768–769, 768
f
lymphatic vessels and
(lymphedema), 754
Edinger-Westphal (accessory
oculomotor) nuclei, 528
EEG.
See
Electroencephalogram
Effacement, in labor, 1086, 1086
f
Effector
in homeostasis,
9
, 9
f
in reflex arc, 422, 422
f
, 513, 513
f
,
533, 533
f
Effector cells,
777
, 778
f
, 779, 784,
785
f
, 791
f
Effector organs, 387
in autonomic versus somatic
nervous system, 525, 526
f
Effector regions (antibody), 781
Efferent arteriole, glomerular, 961
f
,
962
Efferent (motor) division of
peripheral nervous system,
387
, 388
f
Efferent ductules, 1020, 1021
f
, 1056
f
Efferent fibers
,
514
, 514
f
, 515
f
γ,
514
, 514
f
Efferent lymphatic vessels,
755
–756,
756
f
previous page 1221 Human Anatomy and Physiology (9th ed ) 2012 read online next page 1223 Human Anatomy and Physiology (9th ed ) 2012 read online Home Toggle text on/off