I-16
Index
Double covalent bond, 33, 33
f
Double helix, DNA,
54
, 54
f
, 93
f
Double sugars (disaccharides),
43
,
44
f
, 892, 893
f
Doublets (microtubule), 90, 90
f
Double vision (diplopia),
548
Down-regulation,
595
Down syndrome,
1107
Drowsiness, 453
Drug abuse, 418–419
b
Drug therapy, autonomic effects and,
535, 535
t
Dry mouth (xerostomia), 859,
905
thirst mechanism and, 994, 994
f
Duchenne muscular dystrophy,
312
–315
Duct(s)
glandular, 124, 126
f
reproductive.
See
Reproductive
duct system
Duct of epididymis, 1021
f
,
1024
Ductless glands, 124, 592.
See also
Endocrine system/glands
Ductules, efferent, 1020, 1021
f
,
1056
f
Ductus arteriosus,
686
, 686
f
, 745,
1079
, 1080
f
closure of, 1080
f
, 1087
patent, 686
Ductus (vas) deferens, 1019, 1019
f
,
1020
f
, 1021
f
, 1023
f
,
1024
ampulla of, 1019
f
, 1023
f
,
1024
embryologic/fetal development
of, 1056
f
resection of (vasectomy),
1024
,
1090
b
, 1091
b
Ductus venosus, 745,
1079
, 1080
f
closure of, 1080
f
, 1087
Dumping syndrome, 872
Duodenal glands, 876
f
,
877
Duodenal papilla, major,
875
, 875
f
Duodenal ulcers, 877, 905
Duodenum, 850
f
,
875
, 875
f
gastric emptying and, 874
hormones produced by, 622
t
Dural septa,
459
, 460
f
Dural venous sinuses,
459
, 460
f
, 699,
721, 736–737
f
,
738
t
Dura mater
of brain,
459
, 459
f
, 460
f
spinal,
464
, 465
f
, 467
f
Dwarfism, 187
pituitary, 602
t
,
604
, 605
f
psychosocial,
630
Dynamic equilibrium, 580
Dynamic spatial reconstruction
(DSR),
16
b
Dynein(s)/dynein arms, 88, 90, 90
f
,
392
Dynorphin, 416
t
,
417
Dysarthria,
523
Dyslexia,
482
Dysmenorrhea,
1063
Dysphagia,
905
Dysplasia,
115
Dyspnea,
839
pregnancy and, 1083
Dysreflexia, autonomic, 539
Dystocia, 1086
Dystonia,
523
Dystrophin, 51
t
,
282
, 312
Dysuria, 982
packing, 93, 93
f
in protein synthesis, 53, 99,
102
f
, 103
f
, 105, 106–107
f
,
109
f
.
See also
Transduction;
Translation
replication of, 53, 97, 97
f
, 98
f
structure of, 54, 54
f
UV radiation and, 156, 163, 164
DNA fingerprinting, 53
DNA polymerase,
97
, 98
f
DNA probe, 1103
DNA-RNA hybrid,
103
, 103
f
Domains, cortical, 432
Dominance, cerebral,
437
Dominant allele,
1096
–1097, 1099,
1100
t
Dominant follicle, 1044, 1047
Dominant-recessive inheritance,
1099
–1100, 1099
f
, 1100
t
incomplete dominance and,
1100
Dominant traits, 1099, 1100
t
L-Dopa, for Parkinson’s disease, 464
Dopamine, 414, 415
t
,
605
cocaine abuse and, 418–419
b
deficiency of, in Parkinson’s
disease, 464
as prolactin-inhibiting hormone,
603
t
,
606
Dorsal (term), 12
t
.
See also
under
Posterior
Dorsal body cavity,
14
, 18
f
Dorsal column–medial lemniscal
pathway,
469
, 470
f
, 471
t
Dorsal (posterior) funiculi, 467
f
,
468
Dorsal (posterior) horns, 431
f
,
466
,
467
f
Dorsal interossei muscle
of foot,
378
t
, 379
f
of hand, 361
f
,
362
t
Dorsalis pedis artery, 734–735
f
,
734
t
pulse at, 710
f
Dorsalis pedis vein, 744
f
,
744
t
Dorsal (posterior) median sulcus,
445
f
, 465
f
,
466
, 467
f
Dorsal mesentery, 853, 853
f
Dorsal metatarsal arteries, 734–735
f
,
734
t
Dorsal metatarsal veins, 737
f
, 744
f
Dorsal motor nuclei, 528
Dorsal ramus/rami, 502
f
,
503
Dorsal respiratory group,
834
, 834
f
.
See also
Medullary respiratory
centers
Dorsal root(s), 465
f
,
466
, 467
f
, 468
f
,
501
, 502
f
Dorsal root ganglion,
466
, 467
f
, 468
f
,
475, 491, 502
f
Dorsal rootlets, 466, 502
f
Dorsal scapular nerve, 504
f
, 505
t
Dorsal spinocerebellar tract,
469
,
469
f
, 470
f
, 471
t
Dorsal venous arch, foot, 737
f
, 744
f
,
744
t
Dorsal venous network, hand, 740
t
Dorsal white column, 467
f
,
469
, 469
f
,
471
t
Dorsiflexion (body movement),
258
,
259
f
of lower limb, 380
t
, 381
f
Dorsum of foot, muscles on, 371
f
,
372
f
, 376
t
Dorsum nasi, 803, 803
f
Dihydrotestosterone, 1034
baldness and, 159
Diiodotyrosine (DIT/T
2
), 608
f
,
609
Dilated cardiomyopathy, cardiac
output and, 685
Dilation, vascular,
693
, 714
f
.
See also
Vasodilation
Dilation (first) stage of labor,
1086
, 1086
f
Dilator pupillae, 549, 549
f
Dimers, 164
Dipeptidase, 893
f
, 894
f
,
895
Dipeptide, 47, 48
f
, 893
f
Diploë, 177, 177
f
, 179
Diploid chromosomal number (
2n
),
1027
, 1096
Diplopia (double vision),
548
Dipole(s),
34
, 34
f
Direct (fleshy) muscle attachments,
278
Directional terms in anatomy, 12
t
,
13
, 13
f
Direct (pyramidal) pathways, 469,
471, 472
f
, 473
t
, 512
Disaccharides,
43
, 44
f
, 892, 893
f
, 908
Discharge zone, 421, 421
f
Discs, intervertebral.
See
Intervertebral discs
Dislocation(s)/luxation(s),
270
Displaced fracture, 191
Displacement (exchange) reactions,
36
, 36
f
Disseminated intravascular
coagulation (DIC),
650
, 651
Dissociation
strong and weak acids and, 41
water polarity and, 38, 38
f
Distal (term), 12
t
Distal convoluted tubule, 959
f
,
960
,
960
f
, 961
f
reabsorptive capability of, 971
t
, 972
Distal phalanx
finger, 232
f
, 233
t
, 234
toe, 241
f
, 243
t
Distal radioulnar joint, 231
f
, 254
t
Distant vision, focusing for, 555, 555
f
Distributing (muscular) arteries, 695
f
,
696
, 696
t
Distribution functions of blood, 632
Disuse atrophy, 305
Diuresis, 599, 972
osmotic, 621
t
Diuretics, 600,
750
,
976
for heart failure, 685
for weight loss, 942
b
Diverging circuits, 422
f
Diversity
antigen receptor/antibody, 777
cellular, 62, 62
f
Diverticula,
890
–891
Diverticulitis,
891
Diverticulosis,
891
Division(s), brachial plexus, 505
DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid),
53
–54,
54
f
, 55
t
,
93
.
See also
Genome;
Heredity
in chromatin/chromosomes,
93
, 93
f
digestion of, 893
f
, 895
linker, 93, 93
f
miscellaneous roles of, 105
mitochondrial, 83, 83
f
mutations of in cancer, 145
b
,
146, 164
Digestion,
(contd.)
mechanical breakdown and,
851
–852, 851
f
, 885
t
in mouth/esophagus, 851
f
, 863–
864, 864
f
, 885
t
, 892, 893
f
physiology of, 6, 7
f
, 852, 853
f
,
892–895, 893
f
processes of, 851–852, 851
f
, 885
t
in small intestine, 851
f
, 876–877,
876
f
, 885
t
, 886
t
, 893
f
, 894
f
, 895
in stomach, 851
f
, 869–870, 885
t
,
893
f
taste and, 569
Digestive cavity,
19
Digestive enzymes.
See also
Pancreatic juice
Digestive system, 5, 5
f
, 7
f
,
849
–905,
850
f
.
See also
specific organ or
structure and
Digestion
accessory organs of, 850
f
,
851
autonomic innervation/effects
and, 528
f
, 532
f
, 536
t
, 540
b
,
852, 853
f
, 900
b
blood supply of, 854
cardiovascular system and, 746
b
,
900
b
developmental aspects of, 898–
901, 899
f
, 1076
f
, 1077, 1077
f
endocrine system and, 626
b
, 900
b
functional anatomy of, 856–892.
See also
specific organ or
structure
functions/functional concepts
and, 6, 7
f
, 852, 853
f
, 892–898
homeostatic relationships of, 5
f
,
900
b
integumentary system and, 168
b
,
900
b
lymphatic system/immunity and,
761
b
, 900
b
muscular system and, 314
b
, 900
b
neural signals from, food intake
regulation and, 939, 940
f
physiology of, 6, 7
f
, 852, 853
f
,
892–898, 893
f
.
See also
Absorption; Digestion
pregnancy and, 1083
processes occurring in, 851–852,
851
f
, 885
t
relationships of organs of,
852–854, 853
f
reproductive system and, 900
b
,
1059
b
respiratory system and, 843
b
, 900
b
skeletal system and, 195
b
, 900
b
urinary system and, 900
b
, 1013
b
venous drainage of, 721
Digital arteries, 725
f
, 728
f
,
728
t
, 729
f
Digital subtraction angiography
(DSA),
16
b
, 17
f
Digital veins, 737
f
, 740–741
f
, 744
f
Digits (fingers),
234
bones of (phalanges), 200
f
, 232
f
,
233
t
,
234
carpometacarpal joint of, 254
t
interphalangeal joints of, 254
t
muscles controlling movement
of, 354–357
t
, 355
f
, 357
f
, 358
t
,
359
f
intrinsic hand muscles, 354
t
,
360–362
t
, 361
f
Diglycerides, 893
f
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