Index
I-15
Diabetes mellitus,
620
, 621
t
, 624–
625
b
, 794, 932–933
biliopancreatic diversion in
obesity and, 943
b
obesity and, 625
b
steroid administration and, 614
urinary excretion of glucose and,
620, 621
t
, 933
Diacylglycerol,
421
,
595
Dialysis, 978
erythropoietin production and, 637
Diapedesis,
640
,
769
, 769
f
Diaphragm (contraceptive), 1090
b
Diaphragm
pelvic,
344
t
, 345
f
respiratory,
340
t
, 341
f
, 802
f
, 818
f
,
819
slit, renal, 964
f
, 965
urogenital,
344
t
, 345
f
, 981, 1023
f
,
1035
f
Diaphysis,
178
, 178
f
in endochondral ossification, 184,
184
f
Diarrhea,
892
Diarthroses,
250
Diastole,
679
, 680–681, 680
f
, 681
Diastolic pressure,
703
, 703
f
, 710
Dicrotic notch, 680
f
,
681
Diencephalon,
429
, 430
f
, 440
f
,
441
443, 442
f
, 444–445
f
, 450
t
development of,
429
, 429
f
, 430
f
limbic system and, 449, 449
f
, 450
t
Diet, 907–913.
See also
Nutrient(s);
Nutrition
cholesterol levels and, 938
erythropoiesis and, 637–638
hypertension and, 711
immune system and, 796
pregnancy and, 1083
weight loss and, 942–943
b
Diet drugs, for obesity, 943
b
Diethylpropion, 943
b
Differential permeability,
68
.
See also
Membrane(s), permeability of;
Membrane transport
Differential white blood cell count,
641
f
,
653
–654
Differentiation, cell,
110
Diffuse endocrine system, 124
Diffuse junctions,
306
, 306
f
Diffuse lymphoid tissue,
755
Diffusion,
68
–72, 68
f
, 69
f
, 70
f
, 71
f
,
72
t
,
716
in capillary exchange,
716
membrane permeability affecting,
70–71, 70
f
membrane polarity/resting
membrane potential and,
79–80, 79
f
, 397, 398
f
neurotransmitter, 409
f
, 410
Digastric muscle,
334
t
, 335
f
Digestion,
5
, 5
f
, 7
f
,
850
, 851
f
,
852
,
885
t
,
892
–895, 893
f
.
See also
specific digestive organ and
nutrient and
Digestive system
autonomic nervous system
affecting, 852, 853
f
, 900
b
case study and, 905
b
functional anatomy of, 856–892
hydrolysis in, 38, 42
f
, 43,
892
in large intestine, 851
f
, 885
t
,
890–892, 891
f
Dentate gyrus, 449, 449
f
Dentate nuclei, 447
Denticulate ligaments, 465
f
,
466
Dentin, 860
f
,
861
Dentinal tubules, 860
f
, 861
Dentition, 859–860, 860
f
.
See also
Teeth
Deoxyhemoglobin,
635
,
828
Deoxyribonuclease, 893
f
Deoxyribonucleic acid.
See
DNA
Deoxyribose, 43, 44
f
, 54, 54
f
Depolarization
cardiac muscle, 671, 672–673,
673
f
, 674
f
, 675
ECG and, 677–678, 677
f
, 678
f
neuron,
399
, 399
f
action potential and, 400,
400–401, 402–403
f
graded potential and, 399–
400, 400
f
skeletal muscle, 286
f
, 288, 288
f
,
289
f
Deprenyl, for Parkinson’s disease,
464
Depressed fracture, 190
t
Depression (body movement),
258
,
259
f
, 268
Depressor anguli oris muscle,
330
t
,
331
f
Depressor labii inferioris muscle,
330
t
, 331
f
Depth perception,
564
–565
Dermal macrophages, 163
Dermal papillae, 151
f
,
154
Dermal ridges, 154, 155
f
Dermatitis, 167
atopic, 800
contact,
171
allergic,
796
Dermatology,
171
Dermatome (somite),
1077
, 1078
f
,
1079
f
Dermatomes,
509
–510, 510
f
, 519
Dermicidin, 161, 162, 765
Dermis, 132, 133
f
, 140, 151, 151
f
,
154
–156, 154
f
, 155
f
, 167
Dermoid cysts, 1063
Descending aorta,
724
t
Descending colon, 850
f
,
887
, 888
f
Descending limb of nephron loop,
959
f
,
960
, 961
f
as countercurrent multiplier, 973,
974–975
f
, 976
reabsorptive capability of, 971–
972, 971
t
Descending (motor) pathways/tracts,
468, 469–473, 469
f
, 472
f
, 473
t
Desmin (intermediate) filaments, 281
Desmosomes (anchoring junctions),
66
–67, 67
f
, 118
in cardiac muscle, 671, 672
f
in epidermis, 152, 153
f
epithelial, 118
Detached retina, 552
Detrusor muscle,
980
, 981
f
Deuterium, 27
f
Development.
See
Human
development
Developmental anatomy,
2
Deviated septum,
848
Dextrinase,
892
, 893
f
Diabetes insipidus,
600
–601,
988
Deep (forced) inspiration, 819
Deep palmar arch
arterial, 725
f
, 728
f
,
728
t
, 729
f
venous, 740–741
f
,
740
t
Deep plantar arch, 744
f
Deep transverse perineal muscle,
344
t
, 345
f
Deep veins
of lower limbs, 744
f
,
744
t
of upper limbs, 740–741
f
,
740
t
Defecation, 851
f
,
852
, 885
t
, 891–892,
891
f
Defecation reflex, 885
t
,
891
–892, 891
f
Defense system.
See
Body defenses
Defensins, 162,
641
, 765, 766, 805,
859
Defibrillation (heart), 676
Degenerative brain diseases, 463–464
Degenerative joint disease
(osteoarthritis),
270
Deglutition (swallowing),
863
–864,
864
f
, 885
t
difficulty with
achalasia,
904
dysphagia,
905
epiglottis in, 808
muscles controlling, 334–335
t
, 335
f
Dehydration,
995
–996, 997
f
blood pressure/volume and, 708,
709
f
, 995
urine concentration and, 976,
977
f
Dehydration synthesis,
38
, 42, 42
f
in fat synthesis, 45, 45
f
in peptide bond formation, 47, 48
f
in polymer formation, 42, 42
f
, 43
Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA),
615
, 1053
Dehydrogenases,
916
Delayed action gene, 1099
Delayed (type IV) hypersensitivity,
796
Deletion,
1107
Delta waves,
452
, 453
f
, 454
f
, 455
Deltoid muscle, 326
f
, 327
f
, 347–349
f
,
350
t
, 351
f
, 358
t
Deltoid tuberosity,
230
, 230
f
Dementia,
463
, 477, 793
Demifacets, vertebral, 222
Demyelinating diseases, 405–406
Denaturation, protein,
50
Dendrites, 140,
390
–391, 391
f
, 394
t
Dendritic cells, 163,
754
,
777
, 777
f
epidermal (Langerhans cells),
152
, 153
f
, 163
vaginal, HIV infection and, 1040
Dendritic spines, 391, 391
f
Dendrodendritic synapses, 407
Dendrosomatic synapses, 407
Denosumab, fracture prevention
and, 193
Dens of axis,
221
, 221
f
, 222
f
Dense bodies,
307
, 307
f
Dense (fibrous) connective tissue,
129
t
, 130–132,
130
, 133–134
f
Dental alveoli (tooth sockets), 211,
217
t
, 859
articulation of tooth with
(gomphosis), 250
f
,
251
, 861
Dental caries (cavities),
861
Dental formula,
860
Dental plaque,
861
Cytoplasm, 62, 64
f
,
81
–91, 94–95
t
.
See also
specific structure
division of.
See
Cytokinesis
Cytoplasmic inclusions,
81
, 94
t
, 95
t
Cytoplasmic organelles, 3, 4
f
,
81
,
83–89, 94–95
t
.
See also
specific
type
degradation of, 109
f
–110
Cytosine (C),
53
, 54
f
Cytoskeleton, 63
f
, 64
f
, 65,
87
–89, 88
f
,
89
f
Cytosol, 63
f
,
81
, 94
t
ATP formation in, 917, 917
f
as colloid, 30
Cytosolic proteins, degradation of,
109–110
Cytotoxic (type II) hypersensitivity,
796
Cytotoxic T cells, 784, 785
f
,
788
–789,
789
f
, 791
f
, 792
t
Cytotrophoblast (cellular trophoblast),
1070
, 1072
f
, 1073
f
Dabigatran, 650
Dalton’s law of partial pressures,
824
,
825
t
D antigen, in Rh blood group, 651
Dark adaptation,
563
Dark potential, 561
Dartos muscle,
1020
, 1020
f
Daughter cells, 98
of meiosis, 1027, 1028
f
, 1030
f
of mitosis, 98, 101
f
, 1027, 1028
f
in spermatogenesis,
1029
, 1031
f
Daughter chromosomes, 101
f
Dead space, 822–823, 823
t
Deafness,
584
loudness and, 576, 584
vestibulocochlear damage
causing, 498
t
Deamination, oxidative, 928, 928
f
,
929, 929
t
Decarboxylation,
919
, 920
f
Decibels (dB),
576
Decidua basalis,
1072
, 1073
f
, 1074
f
Decidua capsularis,
1072
, 1073
f
, 1074
f
Deciduous teeth (primary dentition),
859
, 860
f
Declarative (fact) memory,
457
, 457
f
Decomposition reactions,
36
, 36
f
hydrolysis,
38
, 42
f
.
See also
Hydrolysis reactions
Decremental current, 400
Decubitus ulcers (bedsores),
171
Decussation
of neuronal pathways, 468
of pyramids, 444
f
,
445
Deep (term), 12
t
.
See also
under
Internal
Deep artery
of arm, 728
f
,
728
t
, 729
f
of thigh,
734
t
, 735
f
Deep (intrinsic) back muscles, 336–
338
t
, 339
f
Deep brain stimulation
for Parkinson’s disease, 464
in seizure control, 453
Deep femoral artery (deep artery of
thigh),
734
t
, 735
f
Deep fibular (peroneal) nerve, 370
t
,
508
f
, 509
t
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