I-14
Index
Cupula (ampullary),
581
, 582
f
Current,
396
decremental, 400
Curvatures
spinal, 218, 218
f
,
244
, 245
f
abnormal, 218–219, 219
f
,
244–245
vertebral collapse/osteoporosis
and, 245
of stomach, greater and lesser,
865
f
,
866
Cushingoid signs, 614–615, 615
f
Cushing’s disease/Cushing’s
syndrome, 603
t
,
614
–615,
615
f
, 616
t
Cushioning function, of water,
38–39
Cutaneous branches of intercostal
nerve, lateral and anterior,
502
f
, 509
Cutaneous glands, 160–162, 161
f
Cutaneous membrane,
140
, 141
f
.
See
also
Skin
Cutaneous nerves,
503
anterior femoral, 507
f
cervical,
503
–505, 503
f
, 503
t
development of, 519
lateral femoral, 507
f
, 507
t
medial, of arm/forearm, 504
f
posterior femoral, 508
f
, 509
t
Cutaneous plexus, 151
f
, 155
Cutaneous sensation (receptors/sense
organs), 151
f
, 152, 153
f
, 154,
163
Cuticle
hair,
157
, 158
f
nail,
160
, 160
f
Cyanide, mechanism of poisoning
by, 923
Cyanocobalamin (vitamin B
12
), 638,
912
t
intrinsic factor and, 639, 870,
897, 912
Cyanosis, 156, 829
Cyclic AMP,
81
,
421
,
594
cardiac contractility affected by,
683, 683
f
in hormone mechanism of action,
594
–595, 594
f
in smell transduction, 567, 567
f
Cyclic GMP, 417,
421
in hormone mechanism of action,
595
in phototransduction,
561
, 561
f
Cyclic slow waves, of stomach, 873
Cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks),
99
Cyclins,
99
Cysteine, 48
f
Cystic duct, 875
f
,
878
, 882
Cystic fibrosis,
842
, 899, 1100
pancreas affected in, 842, 899
Cystic fibrosis transmembrane
conductance regulator
(CFTR) protein, 842
Cystic veins, 742
f
,
742
t
Cystitis, 982
Cystocele,
988
Cystoscopy,
988
Cytochromes, 921
f
, 922
Cytokines,
787
, 790
t
, 791
f
, 792
t
, 947
Cytokinesis, 97
f
,
98
, 101
f
, 1030
f
Cytology,
2
developmental aspects of, 244,
245, 245
f
C-reactive protein, 111, 701
b
Creatine kinase,
298
in CP-ADP reaction,
298
, 299
f
Creatine phosphate (CP),
298
ADP phosphorylation by,
298
,
299
f
, 300
f
Creatinine, 978,
979
CREB (cAMP response-element
binding protein), in memory,
458
C (constant) region,
781
, 781
f
Cremaster muscle,
1020
, 1020
f
Crenation, in hypertonic solution,
71, 71
f
Crepitus, 270
Crest (bone marking), 180
t
Cretinism, 603
t
,
609
–610
CRH.
See
Corticotropin-releasing
hormone
Cribriform foramina, 210, 210
f
Cribriform plates, 207
f
,
210
, 210
f
,
214
f
,
217
t
, 804
f
Cricoid cartilage, 804
f
, 807
f
,
808
Cricothyroid ligament, 807
f
Cricotracheal ligament, 807
f
Crista(e),
83
, 83
f
Crista ampullaris, 573, 573
f
, 576
t
,
581
, 582
f
Crista galli, 205
f
, 207
f
,
210
, 210
f
, 214
f
,
217
t
Crista terminalis, 662, 664
f
Crohn’s disease, 905
Cross bridges,
281
, 284
f
, 285, 289–
293, 291
f
,
292
f
Crossed-extensor reflex,
518
, 518
f
Cross matching, blood, 653
Crossovers (chiasmata), 1028
f
,
1029
,
1030
f
,
1098
, 1098
f
Cross section (transverse section),
14
, 15
f
Crowning, in labor, 1086
Crown-rump measurement, 1076
Crown of tooth,
860
, 860
f
Cruciate ligaments, 262–263
f
, 263–
264, 264
f
Crura
of clitoris, 1040
f
, 1041
of penis,
1023
, 1023
f
Crus cerebri, 443, 444
f
Crying, 824
t
Cryogens, 947
Cryptorchidism, 1022, 1057
Crypts
intestinal, 876
f
,
877
tonsillar,
759
, 759
f
Crystal(s), ionic bonds forming,
32
,
32
f
Crystallins, lens,
553
C-section (cesarean section), 1086
CSF.
See
Cerebrospinal fluid
CSFs.
See
Colony-stimulating factors
CT.
See
Computed tomography
Cubital vein, median, 737
f
, 740–741
f
,
740
t
Cuboidal epithelium, 119,
119
simple,
120
, 121
f
stratified,
122
Cuboid bone, 241
f
,
242
,
243
t
Cuneiform bones, 241
f
,
242
,
243
t
Cuneiform cartilage, 807
f
,
808
Costal cartilages, 174, 175
f
, 224, 225
f
,
226, 226
f
Costal facets
superior and inferior, 222, 222
f
,
223
t
, 226
f
transverse, 222, 222
f
, 223
t
, 226
f
Costal groove, 226, 226
f
Costal margin, 225
f
,
226
Costal surface, of lung,
815
Co-stimulatory signals
autoimmunity and, 794
lymphocyte activation and,
786
,
787
f
, 791
f
Costocervical trunk, 727
f
,
727
t
, 728
f
,
729
f
,
729
t
Costovertebral joint, 254
t
Cough/cough reflex, 808, 809, 824
t
Coumadin.
See
Warfarin
Countercurrent exchanger,
973
, 974
f
,
975
f
, 976
Countercurrent multiplier,
973
,
974–975
f
, 976
Coup injury, 462
Coupled systems, in secondary active
transport, 73, 78
t
Covalent bonds,
32
–34, 33
f
, 34
f
Covering and lining epithelium/
membranes, 118, 140–142, 141
f
Coxal bones (hip bones/os coxae),
234–235,
234
, 235
f
, 236
f
,
243
t
Coxal (hip) joint, 234, 255
t
,
266
–267,
267
f
artificial/replacement, 271
b
muscles crossing, 327
f
, 363–369
t
,
364
f
, 367–368
f
COX inhibitors, prostaglandins and,
47
C proteins, 282
Cramps (muscle), heat, 945
Cranial (term), 12
t
.
See also
under
Superior
Cranial base, 201
Cranial bones (cranium), 200
f
,
201
,
201
f
, 202–210, 203
f
, 204–205
f
,
207
f
.
See also
specific bone
developmental aspects of, 244,
245, 245
f
Cranial cavity,
14
, 18
f
, 201, 202
f
, 207
f
Cranial fossae, 201, 201
f
anterior, 201, 201
f
,
202
, 207
f
middle, 201, 201
f
, 207
f
,
208
posterior, 201, 201
f
,
202
, 207
f
Cranial nerves, 387, 388
f
,
492
–501,
493
f
, 494–500
t
, 519.
See also
specific nerve
Cranial part, of parasympathetic
nervous system, 528–529, 528
f
Cranial rootlets, accessory nerve and,
500
t
Cranial sensory ganglia,
501
Cranial sutures,
201
, 201
f
, 203
f
,
250
,
250
f
.
See also
specific type
Cranial vault, 201
Craniosacral division of
autonomic nervous system.
See
Parasympathetic
(craniosacral) division of
autonomic nervous system
Cranium (cranial bones), 200
f
,
201
,
201
f
, 202–210, 203
f
, 204–205
f
,
207
f
.
See also
specific bone and
under Cranial
Corona radiata (cerebral projection
fibers),
437
, 438
f
Corona radiata (oocyte), 1046
f
,
1047
Coronary arteries, 663
f
, 668–670,
670
f
, 724
f
,
724
t
, 725
f
atherosclerosis affecting,
685
, 687,
700–701
b
homeostatic imbalances and, 671
Coronary bypass surgery, 701
b
Coronary circulation,
668
–671, 670
f
autonomic innervation/effects
and, 536
t
Coronary sinus,
662
, 664
f
, 669
f
,
670
,
670
f
, 699
Coronary sulcus (atrioventricular
groove),
662
Coronary veins, 670, 670
f
.
See also
Cardiac veins
Coronoid fossa,
230
, 230
f
Coronoid process
of mandible, 204
f
,
211
, 211
f
,
217
t
of ulna, 230
f
, 231
f
,
232
Corpora cavernosa
of clitoris, 1040
f
, 1041
of penis, 1019
f
,
1023
, 1023
f
Corpora quadrigemina, 440
f
,
444
, 445
f
Cor pulmonale,
690
Corpus albicans, 1046
f
, 1047
Corpus callosum, 434
f
,
437
, 438
f
,
439
f
, 440
f
Corpus hemorrhagicum, 1047
Corpus luteum,
1036
, 1044
f
, 1046
f
,
1047, 1048
f
, 1049, 1050
f
, 1051
Corpus spongiosum, 1019
f
,
1022
1023, 1023
f
Corrugator supercilii muscle, 329
f
,
329
t
, 331
f
Cortex
adrenal.
See
Adrenal cortex
cerebellar, 447, 448
cerebral.
See
Cerebral cortex
hair, 157, 158
f
lymph node,
755
, 756
f
ovarian, 1036, 1036
f
renal,
956
, 957
f
, 959
f
Cortex-medulla junction (kidney),
957, 961
f
Corti, organ of.
See
Spiral organ
Cortical nephrons,
960
, 961
f
Cortical processing, visual, 434
f
, 436,
565
Cortical radiate arteries,
957
, 958
f
,
961
f
, 962
Cortical radiate veins,
957
, 958
f
, 961
f
Cortical reaction,
1066
, 1068–1069
f
Corticospinal (pyramidal) tracts, 433,
469
f
,
471
, 472
f
, 473
t
Corticosteroids, 46
t
, 47,
612
Corticosterone,
614
Corticotropic cells,
605
Corticotropin,
605
.
See also
Adrenocorticotropic hormone
Corticotropin-releasing hormone
(CRH), 601
f
, 603
t
,
605
in cortisol/ACTH regulation, 614
in food intake regulation, 939,
940
f
Cortisol, 612
f
,
614
, 616
t
excess levels of, 614, 614–615, 616
t
metabolism and, 936
t
sodium regulation and, 1000
Cortisone,
614
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