Index
I-13
Connexons, 67, 67
f
, 407
Conn’s disease (aldosteronism/
hyperaldosteronism), 614,
616
t
,
1017
Conoid tubercle, 227
f
, 228
Consciousness,
453
–454
Consensual light reflex, 563
Constant (C) region,
781
, 781
f
Constipation,
892
pregnancy and, 1083
Constrictor muscles, pharyngeal,
334
t
, 335
f
,
335
t
, 862
Contact dermatitis,
171
allergic,
796
Contact inhibition, 99
Contact signaling, 81
Continuous capillaries,
697
, 697
f
Continuous conduction,
405
, 406
f
Contraception, 1090–1091
b
Contractile proteins, 50, 51
t
Contractile ring, in cytokinesis, 98,
101
f
Contractility, muscle,
5
,
277
,
683
.
See
also
Muscle contraction
cardiac muscle, 672–673, 673
f
cardiac output and, 682
f
,
683
,
683
f
, 705
f
movement and, 5, 277
stomach muscles and, 873–874,
873
f
Contraction
muscle,
285
, 285
f
.
See also
Muscle
contraction
uterine
Braxton Hicks, 1085
in labor, 1085, 1085
f
, 1086
Contralateral (term),
433
Contrecoup injury, 462
Control center, in homeostasis,
9
, 9
f
Contusion, brain,
462
–463
Conus medullaris, 465
f
,
466
Convection, heat loss by,
945
, 945
f
Convergence, in close vision,
556
Convergent fascicle pattern/muscles,
322
, 322
f
Converging circuits, 422
f
Convex lens, 554, 555
f
COPD.
See
Chronic obstructive
pulmonary diseases
CO poisoning.
See
Carbon monoxide
poisoning
Copper, 26
t
, 915
t
Coracoacromial ligament, 265
f
Coracobrachialis muscle,
350
t
, 351–
352
f
,
352
t
, 358
t
Coracohumeral ligament,
264
, 265
f
Coracoid process,
228
, 229
f
Cord(s), brachial plexus, 504
f
, 505,
505
t
Cordotomy,
482
Core temperature,
944
in hyperthermia, 947
in hypothermia, 947
Cornea, 545
f
, 548
f
,
549
, 552
f
Corneal endothelium, 549, 552
f
Corneal epithelium, 549, 552
f
Corniculate cartilage, 807
f
,
808
Cornified (horny) cells, 154
Cornua, hyoid bone, 215, 215
f
Coronal (frontal) plane/section,
14
, 15
f
Coronal suture, 201, 201
f
,
202
, 204
f
,
205
f
Concussion,
462
Condensed chromatin, 92
f
, 96
Condoms
for contraception, 1090
b
STI prevention and, 1053
Conducting (elastic) arteries,
695
,
695
f
, 696
t
Conducting region of neuron,
391
,
391
f
, 394
t
Conducting zone,
803
, 810–811, 811
f
Conduction, heat loss by,
945
, 945
f
Conduction deafness,
584
Conduction system of heart
autonomic nervous system
affecting, 676–677, 677
f
defects in, 676, 678, 679
f
extrinsic, 676–677, 677
f
intrinsic,
674
–676, 674
f
, 675
f
Conduction velocity of action
potential, 405–407, 406
f
Conductivity, 277
Conductors, 396
Condylar (ellipsoidal) joints, 258,
261
f
Condylar process, of mandible, 204
f
,
211
, 211
f
,
217
t
, 267, 268
f
Condyle (bone marking), 180
t
of femur,
238
, 239
f
occipital,
202
, 203
f
, 206
f
,
216
t
of tibia,
239
–241, 240
f
Cone(s), 550
f
,
551
, 556–563, 558
f
.
See
also
Photoreceptors
electromagnetic spectrum and
sensitivities of, 554
f
light and dark adaptation and,
563
rods compared with, 559, 559
t
Cone discs, 558, 558
f
Cone inner segments, 557, 558
f
Cone opsins,
559
Cone outer segments, 557, 558
f
Congenital immunodeficiencies, 793
Congenital thymic aplasia,
800
Congestive heart failure,
685
Conjunctiva, 545
f
,
546
Conjunctival sac, 545
f
,
546
Conjunctivitis, 546
Connective tissue, 117
f
,
127
–136,
128
f
, 129
t
, 131–137
f
.
See also
specific type
blood, 129
t
,
136
, 137
f
, 631–656.
See also
Blood
bone (osseous), 129
t
,
136
, 137
f
,
173–198.
See also
Bone(s)/
skeletal tissue
in cardiac muscle, 310
t
, 660, 661,
666
f
cartilage, 129
t
,
132
–134, 135–
136
f
.
See also
Cartilage
dense (fibrous), 129
t
, 130–132,
130
, 133–134
f
elastic, 129
t
,
132
, 134
f
epithelia supported by, 118
exocrine glands supported by, 124
hair follicle sheath of,
158
, 158
f
loose, 129
t
,
130
, 131–132
f
reticular, 129
t
,
130
, 132
f
,
754
lymphoid tissue,
754
, 755
f
skeletal muscle sheath of, 278,
279
f
, 283
t
, 310
t
in smooth muscle, 305, 310
t
Connective tissue proper, 129
t
,
130
–132
Common hepatic duct, 875
f
,
878
Common iliac arteries, 724
f
,
724
t
,
725
f
, 730
f
, 732
f
,
732
t
, 733
f
,
734–735
f
,
734
t
Common iliac veins, 736–737
f
,
736
t
,
742–743
f
, 744
f
,
744
t
Common interosseous artery, 728
f
,
728
t
, 729
f
Common tendinous (annular) ring,
547
, 547
f
Commotio cordis,
690
Communicating arteries
anterior, 726
f
,
726
t
, 727
f
posterior, 726
f
, 727
f
,
727
t
Compact bone, 129
t
,
177
, 177
f
, 178
f
,
185
f
microscopic anatomy of, 181,
181
f
, 182
f
Complement/complement system, 51
t
,
767
, 770
t
,
771
–773, 772
f
, 792
t
antibodies in fixation/activation
of, 782, 782
f
in inflammation,
767
, 768
f
, 770
t
Complementarity of structure and
function,
3
, 62, 634
Complementary bases,
54
, 54
f
Complement fixation, 772, 782, 782
f
Complete antigens,
774
Complete blood count (CBC),
654
Complete fracture, 191
Complete proteins, 909
t
,
910
Complete (fused) tetanus,
295
, 295
f
Complex carbohydrates, 908, 909
t
.
See also
Starch
Compliance
blood pressure and, 703
lung,
821
Complicated plaque,
700
b
Compound(s),
28
–29.
See also
specific
type
inorganic, 38–41,
38
mixtures differentiated from, 30
organic,
38
, 41–56
Compound (open) fracture, 191
Compound glands,
124
, 126
f
Compression fracture, 190
t
, 245
Computed tomography (computerized
axial tomography/CAT/CT),
16
b
, 16
f
in diagnosis of CNS dysfunction,
474
Concave lens, 554
Concentration, 29–30
chemical reaction rate affected
by, 37–38
Concentration gradient,
68
, 397
active transport and, 73, 75
f
, 78
t
diffusion and,
68
, 68
f
, 79–80, 79
f
osmosis and, 70–71
resting membrane potential and,
397, 398
f
Concentric contractions,
296
, 296
f
Conception.
See
Fertilization
Conceptus,
1065
, 1065
f
Concha(e), nasal, 215, 565, 566
f
, 804
f
,
805–806
inferior, 203
f
,
212
, 214
f
,
217
t
,
804
f
, 805–806
middle, 203
f
,
210
, 214
f
,
217
t
, 804
f
,
805–806
superior,
210
, 214
f
,
217
t
, 804
f
,
805–806
Collagen fibers,
127
, 128
f
in bone lamellae, 136, 137
f
, 181,
181
f
in cartilage, 132
in dense irregular connective
tissue, 132, 133
f
in dense regular connective tissue,
132, 133
f
in dermis, 132, 133
f
, 155
in fibrocartilage, 134, 136
f
in tissue repair, 142, 143
f
Collarbones.
See
Clavicles
Collateral channels,
699
Collateral (prevertebral) ganglia, 530
f
,
531
–533, 532
f
Collateral ligaments
of elbow (radial and ulnar),
266
,
266
f
of knee (fibular and tibial), 262–
263
f
,
263
injuries of, 264, 264
f
Collecting ducts, 958, 959
f
,
960
, 961
f
hydrogen secretion in, in acid
base balance, 1007
osmotic gradient and, 974–975
f
in potassium balance, 1002–1003
reabsorptive capability of, 971
t
,
972
Collecting vessels, lymphatic, 752
f
,
753
, 753
f
Colles’ fracture, 232
Colliculi
inferior,
444
, 444
f
, 445
f
,
579
, 579
f
superior,
444
, 444
f
, 445
f
, 473,
563
–564, 564
f
Colloid(s), 29
f
,
30
,
607
biological, 38
thyroid gland storage/thyroid
hormone synthesis and, 606
f
,
607
, 608, 608
f
, 609
Colloid osmotic pressure,
717
,
718–719
f
in capsular space, 965
in glomerular capillaries, 965
f
,
966
Colon, 850
f
,
887
, 888
f
.
See also
Large
intestine
Colon cancer, 145
b
, 146
f
, 890
Colony-stimulating factors,
642
Color blindness,
559
Colorectal cancer, 145
b
, 146
f
,
899–901
Color vision, 551, 559
Colostrum,
1088
Columnar epithelium,
119
, 119
f
pseudostratified,
120–122
, 122
f
simple,
120
, 121
f
stratified,
122
–124
Coma, 451,
453
–454
Combination (synthesis) reactions,
36
, 36
f
Comminuted fracture, 190
t
Commissural fibers,
437
, 438
f
, 468
Commissures,
437
Commissures (canthi), medial and
lateral,
545
, 545
f
Common carotid arteries, 724
f
,
724
t
,
725
f
, 726
f
,
726
t
, 728
f
, 729
f
pulse at, 710
f
Common fibular (peroneal) nerve,
369
t
, 508, 508
f
,
509
, 509
t
Common hepatic artery, 730
f
, 731
f
,
731
t
.
See also
Hepatic artery
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