I-12
Index
Clot (fibrin mesh), 142, 143
f
, 646
f
,
647, 648–649, 648
f
, 649
f
.
See
also
Fibrin mesh; Clotting
Clot retraction,
649
Clotting.
See
Coagulation
Clotting cascade, 648
Clotting factors, 646,
647
, 647
t
, 648
f
in inflammation, 768
f
, 769
Clubfoot,
248
CNS.
See
Central nervous system
CO.
See
Carbon monoxide; Cardiac
output
Coagulation (blood clotting), 646
f
,
647
–649, 647
t
, 648
f
, 649
f
autonomic effects and, 536
t
disorders of, 650–651
homeostatic control in, 11, 11
f
platelets in, 11, 11
f
, 645
undesirable, prevention of, 649
Coagulation cascade, 648
Coagulation factors, 646,
647
, 647
t
,
648
f
Coarctation of aorta, 686, 687
f
Coated pits/coat proteins, 73, 75,
76–77, 76
f
, 78
t
Coatomer proteins, 76, 78
t
Cobalt, 26
t
, 915
t
Cocaine abuse, 418–419
b
Cocaine- and amphetamine-
regulated transcript (CART),
in food intake regulation, 939,
940, 940
f
Coccygeal nerve, 501, 501
f
Coccygeus muscle,
344
t
, 345
f
Coccyx,
218
, 218
f
, 224, 224
f
, 235
f
,
237
t
Cochlea, 571
f
,
573
–575, 573
f
, 574
f
,
576
t
Cochlear duct (scala media),
573
,
573
f
, 574
f
, 575, 576
t
, 577
f
Cochlear hair cells, 574
f
, 578–579,
578
f
.
See also
Hair cells
Cochlear implant, 584
Cochlear nerve, 498
t
, 571
f
, 573
f
, 574
f
,
575, 577
f
,
578
Cochlear nuclei,
446
,
579
, 579
f
Coding strand, 103, 103
f
Codominant alleles, 1100
Codon(s),
104
, 104
f
, 105, 107
f
, 109
f
Coelom, 1073
f
,
1077
, 1078
f
Coenzyme(s),
52
,
911
in redox reactions, 916
vitamins as,
911
Coenzyme A, 919
Cofactor(s),
52
, 920–922, 921
f
Cognition/cognitive function, 452–
458, 453
f
, 454
f
, 456
f
, 457
f
cerebellum in, 449
prefrontal cortex and, 434
f
, 437
Cohesin, 97
Coiled (spiral) arteries of uterus,
1039
, 1039
f
Coitus interruptus, 1090
b
Cold exposure, hypothermia and, 947
Cold sores (fever blisters),
171
Colic arteries
le±, 730
f
,
732
t
, 733
f
middle, 730
f
,
732
t
, 733
f
right, 730
f
,
732
t
, 733
f
Colitis, ulcerative, 905
Collagen, 50, 51
t
, 127
Collagenase, 163
systemic blood pressure and,
702–704, 703
f
, 704
f
tissue perfusion and, 711–717,
712
f
, 714
f
, 716
f
, 718–719
f
, 720
f
Circulatory shock,
717
, 720
f
autonomic effects and, 536–537
hypotension and, 711
Circumcision, 1022
Circumduction (body movement),
257
f
,
258
Circumferential lamellae,
181
, 182
f
Circumflex artery (coronary), 663
f
,
668
, 670
f
Circumflex femoral arteries, lateral
and medial, 734–735
f
,
734
t
Circumflex humeral artery
anterior, 728
f
,
728
t
, 729
f
posterior, 728
f
,
728
t
, 729
f
Cirrhosis,
881
Cis face, of Golgi apparatus, 85, 85
f
11-
Cis
-retinal,
559
, 560
f
Cisterna chyli, 753
f
,
754
Cisterns
Golgi apparatus, 85
f
rough endoplasmic reticulum,
84
,
86
f
terminal,
284
, 284
f
in excitation-contraction
coupling, 289, 290–291
f
Citric acid,
919
, 920
f
Citric acid cycle (Krebs cycle), 914
f
,
916–917, 917
f
,
919
, 920
f
, 924
f
,
929
t
Cl.
See
Chlorine
Class I MHC proteins,
784
, 785
f
, 786
t
Class II MHC proteins,
784
–785,
785
f
, 786
t
, 787
f
Classical pathway, of complement
activation,
772
, 772
f
Clathrin/clathrin-coated vesicles,
75
,
76
f
, 78
t
Claudication, intermittent, 315
Clavicles (collarbones), 200
f
, 227,
227
f
,
228
,
233
t
Clavicular notches,
225
, 225
f
Clawhand, 506
Cleavage,
1067
, 1071
f
Cleavage furrow,
98
, 101
f
Cleavage (tension) lines,
155
, 155
f
Cle± lip, 244
f
,
899
Cle± palate, 244, 244
f
,
898
–899
Climax (sexual)
in female, 1052
in male,
1027
Clitoris, 1035
f
, 1040
f
,
1041
autonomic innervation/effects
and, 528
f
, 536
t
embryologic/fetal development
of, 1055, 1057
f
Cloaca, 1055, 1056
f
Cloacal membrane,
898
, 899
f
Clonal deletion, 776
Clonal selection,
777
B lymphocyte, 778
f
, 779
T lymphocyte, 786–787, 787
f
Clone, 645,
777
Cloning, reproductive, 1089
Closed (simple) fracture, 191
Closed (external) reduction of
fracture, 191
Close vision, focusing for, 555–556,
555
f
Chronic renal disease,
978
Chronotropic factors, positive and
negative, 684
Churning food (stomach), 851–852,
851
f
Chyle,
753
Chylomicrons, 895
f
,
896
, 936, 936
f
Chyme,
864
, 869
entry of into small intestine, 873,
883, 884–886, 884
f
Chymotrypsin,
883
, 883
f
, 893
f
, 894
f
,
895
Chymotrypsinogen, 883, 883
f
Cigarette smoking.
See
Smoking
Cilia,
90
–91, 90
f
, 91
f
, 95
t
,
118
in body defense, 770
t
epithelial,
118
nasal, 805
olfactory,
566
, 566
f
primary, 91
in trachea, 809, 810
f
smoking affecting, 809
Ciliary body, 548
f
,
549
, 552
f
Ciliary ganglia,
528
, 528
f
Ciliary glands, 546
Ciliary muscles,
549
, 552
f
autonomic innervation/effects
and, 536
t
, 555, 555
f
, 556
in light focusing, 555, 555
f
, 556
Ciliary processes, 548
f
,
549
, 552
f
Ciliary zonule (suspensory ligament),
548
f
,
549
, 552
f
in light focusing, 555, 555
f
, 556
Ciliated pseudostratified columnar
epithelium, 122, 122
f
Cingulate gyrus, 434
f
, 437,
449
, 449
f
Circadian pigment (melanopsin), 564
Circadian rhythm, sleep-wake cycle
as, 454
Circle of Willis (cerebral arterial
circle), 699, 726
f
, 727
f
,
727
t
Circuit(s),
421
, 422
f
sensory integration at level of,
487, 488, 488
f
Circular fascicle pattern/muscles,
322
, 322
f
.
See also
Sphincter(s)
Circular folds,
876
, 876
f
Circular layer of smooth muscle, 306,
306
f
in alimentary canal muscularis,
854
f
, 855
in stomach muscularis, 865
f
, 867
f
Circulation, 701–717, 718–719
f
,
720
f
.
See also
specific type and
Blood vessels; Cardiovascular
system; Lymphatic system
blood pressure maintenance and,
704–711, 705
f
, 706
f
, 707
t
,
708
f
, 709
f
fetal, 745, 1074
f
, 1079–1081, 1080
f
changes in at birth, 1080
f
,
1087
flow/pressure/resistance
definitions/relationships and,
701–702
monitoring, 710, 710
f
pulmonary,
659
, 659
f
, 668, 669
f
,
715, 721, 722
f
,
722
–723
t
systemic,
659
, 659
f
, 668, 669
f
, 721,
723
f
, 723
t
arteries of, 721, 724–725
f
, 724
t
veins of, 721, 736–737
f
, 736
t
Cholecystokinin, 416
t
, 417, 622
t
,
868
t
,
872
, 883–884, 884
f
in food intake regulation, 940,
940
f
Cholesterol, 45
f
, 46
t
, 47, 908, 909
t
,
910, 927,
935
bile in excretion of, 882
blood levels of
atherosclerosis and, 700
b
,
937–938
factors regulating, 938
recommended, 937
in membranes, 63, 64
f
, 65
metabolism of, 935–937, 936
f
transport of, 936–937, 936
f
Cholesterol-lowering drugs, 701
b
, 938
Choline acetyltransferase, 414
Cholinergic fibers,
533
Cholinergic receptors, 534,
534
t
Chondroblasts,
128
, 129
t
, 134
Chondrocytes, 129
t
,
134
, 135
f
, 136
f
,
174
autologous, implantation of in
joint therapy, 271
b
Chondroitin sulfate, 127, 132
Chondromalacia patellae,
275
Chordae tendinae, 665
f
, 666
f
,
667
, 667
f
Chorda tympani, in gustatory
pathway, 569
Chorea, in Huntington’s disease, 464
Chorion,
172
, 1070,
1072
, 1073
f
,
1074
f
, 1075
Chorionic gonadotropin, human
(hCG),
1070
–1071, 1072
f
Chorionic somatomammotropin,
human (hCS/human placental
lactogen), 1074,
1083
Chorionic villi,
1072
, 1073
f
, 1074
f
Chorionic villus sampling,
1103
–1104, 1104
f
Choroid, 548
f
,
549
, 550
f
Choroid plexus, 440
f
, 445
f
, 448
f
,
460
,
461
f
Chromaffin cells, medullary,
615
, 616
Chromatids, sister, 93
f
, 100
f
, 1028
f
,
1029, 1030
f
Chromatin, 63
f
,
93
–96, 93
f
, 96
t
in cell division, 96, 97, 100
f
Chromatophilic substance (Nissl
bodies),
390
, 391
f
Chromium, 26
t
, 915
t
Chromosomal number
diploid (2
n
),
1027
, 1096
haploid (
n
),
1027
, 1029
Chromosome(s), 93
f
,
96
, 100
f
.
See
also
Heredity
during cell division, 100
f
homologous (homologues),
1027
,
1029, 1096
maternal, 1027
paternal, 1027
recombinant,
1098
, 1098
f
segregation of, independent
assortment and,
1097
–1098,
1097
f
sex,
1054
,
1096
, 1100–1101, 1101
f
Chromosome territories, 96
Chronic bronchitis, 839
f
,
840
Chronic hypotension, 711
Chronic leukemia, 645
Chronic obstructive pulmonary
diseases (COPD),
839
–840, 839
f
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