Index
I-11
Chemical senses, 565–570, 584–585.
See also
Smell; Taste
development of, 584–585
homeostatic imbalances of, 570
Chemical signaling, 81, 82
f
cell division control and, 99
Chemical synapses,
407
–410,
409
f
.
See also
Neurotransmitter(s)
Chemical (nonshivering)
thermogenesis,
947
Chemiosmotic processes/
chemiosmosis,
917
, 921
f
metabolic poisons and, 923
Chemistry, 23–38
bonds and, 30–35,
31
, 31
f
, 32
f
,
33
f
, 34
f
, 35
f
chemical reactions and,
35
–38, 36
f
energy and,
24
–25
matter and,
24
in combination (molecules/
mixtures), 28–30, 29
f
composition of, 25–28, 25
f
,
26
t
, 27
f
living matter.
See
Biochemistry
Chemobrain, 146
b
Chemoreceptors,
484
, 485
t
,
565
,
707
,
835
in blood pressure control, 705,
707
, 709
f
in respiratory rate/rhythm control,
835–837, 835
f
, 836
f
, 1006
in salivation control, 859
for taste and smell,
565
Chemotactic agents,
769
Chemotaxis, 768
f
,
769
, 769
f
positive,
640
, 769
Chemotherapy, 146
b
Chewing (mastication), 851, 851
f
,
859,
863
, 885
t
muscles of, 332
t
, 333
f
Cheyne-Stokes breathing,
848
Chiasmata (crossovers), 1028
f
,
1029
,
1030
f
,
1098
, 1098
f
Chief cells,
866
, 867
f
Childbirth.
See
Birth
Chimeric immune system,
792
Chiropractic,
248
Chlamydia,
1053
STIs caused by,
1053
–1054
trachoma caused by, 590, 1053
Chlamydia trachomatis,
1053
Chlamydophila pneumoniae,
atherosclerosis and, 700
b
Chloasma, 1082
Chloride
absorption of, 897
balance of
abnormalities of, 998
t
regulation of, 1004
in plasma/interstitial fluid/
intracellular fluid, 992, 992
f
Chloride shiF,
832
, 833
f
Chlorine, 26
t
, 915
t
sodium chloride formation and,
32, 32
f
Choanae, nasal (posterior nasal
apertures),
803
, 804
f
Chocolate cysts, 1063
Choking (tracheal obstruction), 809
Cholecalciferol, 622
t
,
623
Cholecystitis,
899
C±TR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane
conductance regulator)
protein, 842
cGMP.
See
Cyclic GMP
Chadwick’s sign, 1082
Chain ganglia (sympathetic trunk/
paravertebral ganglia),
529
531, 530
f
, 532
f
Chalazion, 546
Chancre, syphilitic, 1053
Channel-linked (inotropic) receptors,
420
, 420
f
Channel-mediated facilitated
diffusion, 69, 69
f
, 72
t
Channels (protein), 65,
69
, 396–397,
396
f
.
See also
specific type
action potential and, 400–401,
402–403
f
channel-linked (inotropic)
receptors and,
420
, 420
f
diffusion and, 69, 69
f
, 72
t
gated, 69, 81, 396–397, 396
f
information transfer at chemical
synapse and, 408, 409
f
, 410
leakage (nongated), 69,
396
mechanically gated,
396
muscle contraction and, 287
f
, 288,
288
f
, 289, 289
f
cardiac muscle, 672–673,
673
f
Charley horse,
384
Charnley, John, 271
b
Checkpoints, in cell division, 97
f
, 99
Cheekbones.
See
Zygomatic bones
Cheeks,
856
–857
Chemical barriers, skin, 162, 765
Chemical bonds, 30–35,
31
, 31
f
, 32
f
,
33
f
, 34
f
, 35
f
.
See also
specific
type
chemical reactions and, 35, 36,
36
f
, 37
energy stored in, 24
sacrificial, in bone, 183
Chemical buffer systems, in acid-base
balance, 41,
1004
–1006, 1005
f
bicarbonate/carbonic acid–
bicarbonate buffer system,
41
,
832
,
1005
bicarbonate reabsorption and,
1007, 1007
f
bicarbonate regeneration and,
1007–1008, 1008
f
, 1009
f
phosphate buffer system,
1005
,
1008
protein buffer system,
1005
–1006
Chemical digestion.
See
Digestion
Chemical energy,
24
Chemical equations, 35–36
Chemical equilibrium,
37
Chemical level, structural
organization at,
3
, 4
f
Chemically-gated (ligand-gated)
channel(s),
396
, 396
f
muscle contraction and, 287
f
, 288,
288
f
, 289
Chemically gated channel-linked
receptors, 81
Chemical mediators, inflammatory,
767, 768
f
, 770
t
Chemical reactions,
35
–38, 36
f
enzymes affecting, 38, 51–52,
52–53, 52
f
Cerebral blood flow, 712, 712
f
,
714–715
Cerebral cortex, 431,
431
–437, 433
f
,
434
f
, 435
f
, 439
f
, 450
t
association areas of, 432, 434
f
.
See
also
Association areas
autonomic regulation by, 538,
538
f
lateralization and, 433,
437
motor areas of,
433
–435, 434
f
,
435
f
respiratory control and, 835
f
, 837
sensory areas of, 434
f
, 435–436,
435
f
sensory integration in, 487,
488–489, 488
f
Cerebral dominance,
437
Cerebral edema,
463
, 715
Cerebral fissures,
431
, 432
f
Cerebral gray matter, 438
f
, 450
t
.
See
also
Cerebral cortex
Cerebral hemispheres (cerebrum),
429
, 430–441, 430
f
,
431
, 432
f
,
450
t
development of, 429–430,
429
,
429
f
, 430
f
Cerebral palsy,
476
Cerebral peduncles,
443
, 444
f
, 446
f
Cerebral white matter, 431,
437
, 438
f
,
439
f
Cerebrospinal fluid (CS±),
460
–462,
461
f
, 462
f
, 464
Cerebrovascular accidents (strokes),
463
diagnosis of, 474–475
Cerebrum (cerebral hemispheres),
429
, 430–441, 430
f
,
431
, 432
f
,
450
t
development of, 429–430,
429
,
429
f
, 430
f
Cerumen (earwax), 161,
572
Ceruminous glands,
161
,
572
Cervical branch of facial nerve, 497
t
,
498
t
Cervical canal, 1037
f
,
1038
Cervical cancer, 1038
Cervical cap, for contraception,
1090
b
Cervical curvature of spine,
218
, 218
f
,
244
Cervical enlargement, 465
f
,
466
,
501
f
Cervical flexure, 429, 430
f
Cervical ganglia, superior/middle/
inferior,
531
, 532
f
Cervical glands, 1038
Cervical ligaments, lateral (cardinal),
1037
f
,
1038
Cervical lymph nodes, 753
f
Cervical mucus, 1038, 1049, 1051
Cervical nerves, 465
f
, 501, 501
f
,
503–505, 503
f
, 503
t
Cervical plexus, 501
f
,
503
–505, 503
f
,
503
t
Cervical plug, 1051
Cervical vertebrae,
218
, 218
f
, 221,
221
f
, 222
f
, 223
t
Cervix, 1035
f
, 1037
f
,
1038
cancer of, 1038
dilation of in labor, 1086, 1086
f
Cesarean section (C-section), 1086
C fibers, 489
case study and, 482
b
congenital disorders and, 476
developmental aspects of,
475–477, 475
f
, 476
f
diagnostic procedures for
dysfunction of, 474–475
digestion/digestive system and,
852, 853
f
equilibrium and, 583, 583
f
gender-specific differences in, 475
gray and white matter of,
393
higher mental functions and,
452–458
homeostatic imbalances of brain
and, 462–464
myelination in, 393
neuroglia (supporting cells) of,
389–390, 389
f
neuronal circuit types and,
421
,
422
f
protection of brain and, 458–462
regeneration and, 492
spinal cord,
464
–474
Central pattern generators,
511
–512,
512
f
Central process,
393
, 394
t
Central sulcus,
431
, 432
f
, 434
f
Central tendon of perineum,
344
t
,
345
f
, 1041
Central thermoreceptors,
945
Central vein
of liver lobule,
878
, 880
f
of retina, 548
f
, 550
f
,
551
, 551
f
Centrioles, 63
f
,
89
, 89
f
, 95
t
in cell division, 89, 97, 100
f
in cilia, 90, 90
f
Centromere, 97, 100
f
Centrosome/centrosome matrix, 63
f
,
88,
89
, 89
f
, 100
f
Centrum (body) of vertebra, 219
f
,
220
, 220
f
, 223
t
Cephalic (reflex) phase, of gastric
secretion,
870
, 871
f
Cephalic vein, 737
f
, 740–741
f
,
740
t
Cephalin, 46
t
Cephalization,
428
Cerebellar cortex, 447, 448, 448
f
Cerebellar gray matter, 447
Cerebellar hemispheres,
447
Cerebellar peduncles, 444
f
, 445
f
,
447
,
448
f
inferior, 444
f
, 445, 445
f
,
447
, 448
f
middle, 444
f
, 445, 445
f
,
447
, 448
f
superior, 443–445, 444
f
, 445
f
,
447
, 448
f
Cerebellar processing, 447–448
Cerebellar white matter, 447
Cerebellum, 429, 430
f
,
447
–449, 448
f
,
451
t
,
583
development of, 429, 429
f
, 430
f
in equilibrium pathway,
583
, 583
f
in motor control,
512
, 512
f
Cerebral angiogragraphy, 475
Cerebral aqueduct, 429
f
,
430
, 431
f
,
440
f
, 444
Cerebral arterial circle (circle of
Willis), 699, 726
f
, 727
f
,
727
t
Cerebral arteries
anterior, 726
f
,
726
t
, 727
f
middle, 726
f
,
726
t
, 727
f
posterior, 726
f
, 727
f
,
727
t
stroke caused by blockage of, 463
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