I-10
Index
Cell body
neuron,
390
, 391
f
, 394
t
rod and cone, 557, 558
f
Cell–cell recognition, glycocalyx in,
66, 66
f
Cell center.
See
Centrosome
Cell cycle,
96
–99, 97
f
, 98
f
, 100–101
f
cell division, 96, 97
f
, 98–99
cytokinesis, 97
f
,
98
, 101
f
, 1030
f
DNA replication, 97, 97
f
, 98
f
interphase, 96,
96
–97, 97
f
, 98
f
,
100
f
, 1030
f
mitosis, 97
f
,
98
, 100–101
f
, 1027,
1028
f
Cell death, programmed.
See
Apoptosis
Cell differentiation glycoproteins, 784
Cell division, 96, 97
f
, 98–99.
See also
Cytokinesis; Mitosis
in cancer, 145
b
control of, 99
modified rates of, 110
reproduction/growth and, 7, 8,
96, 97
f
, 98–99
Cell junctions,
66
–67, 67
f
, 118
Cell lysis, in antibody mechanism of
action, 782, 782
f
Cell-mediated immunity.
See
Cellular
(cell-mediated) immunity
Cell membrane.
See
Plasma
membrane
Cell theory,
62
Cellular extensions, 89–91, 90
f
, 91
f
, 95
t
Cellular (cell-mediated) immunity,
765
f
,
773
, 779
t
, 784–790, 785
f
,
786
t
, 787
f
, 788
f
, 789
f
, 790
t,
791
f
, 792
t
organ transplants/rejection
prevention and, 790–792
Cellular level, structural organization
at,
3
, 4
f
Cellular metabolism.
See also
Metabolism
autonomic effects and, 536
t
Cellular organelles.
See
Organelles
Cellular respiration, 5, 83, 299, 802,
913
, 914, 914
f
, 929
t
ATP for muscle activity and,
299
–300, 299
f
, 300
f
, 311
t
redox reactions in, 37
Cellular secretions, 110
Cellular trophoblast (cytotrophoblast),
1070
, 1072
f
, 1073
f
Cellulose, 43, 908
Cement, 860
f
,
861
Central artery
of retina, 548
f
, 550
f
,
551
, 551
f
of spleen, 757
f
Central (Haversian) canal, 136, 137
f
,
181
, 182
f
Central canal of spinal cord, 429
f
,
431
f
, 467
f
Central chemoreceptors,
835
, 835
f
,
836, 836
f
, 837
Central deafness, vestibulocochlear
damage causing, 498
t
Central nervous system,
387
, 388
f
,
428
–482.
See also
Brain;
Spinal cord
autonomic nervous system
regulated by, 538, 538
f
brain,
429
–464
Caudate lobe, of liver, 878, 879
f
Caudate nucleus, 438
f
,
439
, 439
f
Caveolae,
76
, 78
t
,
306
in smooth muscle,
306
, 307
f
, 310
t
Caveolin, 78
t
Cavernous sinuses, 738–739
f
,
738
t
Cavities (body), 14–20, 18
f
, 19
f
, 20
f
Cavities (dental),
861
C (parafollicular) cells, 606
f
, 607,
610
CD4 cells,
784
, 785
f
, 787
f
, 791
f
.
See
also
Helper T cells
HIV infection/AIDS and, 793
MHC antigen presentation and,
784–785, 785
f
, 791
f
MHC restriction and, 785–786
CD8 cells,
784
, 785
f
, 791
f
.
See also
Cytotoxic T cells
helper T cells in activation of,
788, 788
f
MHC antigen presentation and,
784, 785
f
, 791
f
MHC restriction and, 785–786
Cdks (cyclin-dependent kinases),
99
Cecum, 850
f
,
887
, 888
f
Celiac disease (gluten-sensitive
enteropathy), 898
Celiac ganglion/plexus, 528
f
, 529,
531
, 532
f
Celiac trunk, 725
f
, 730–733
f
,
731
t
branches of, 730
f
, 731
t
Cell(s), 3, 4
f
,
61
–115, 62
f
, 63
f
, 94–96
t
.
See also
under Cellular
aging of, 111
in connective tissue, 128–129,
128
f
, 129
t
cytoplasm of, 62, 64
f
,
81
–91,
94–95
t
death of, programmed.
See
Apoptosis
developmental aspects of,
110–111
differentiation of,
110
diversity/specialization of, 62,
62
f
division of.
See
Cell division
environmental interactions with,
80–81, 82
f
extracellular materials and,
110
generalized/composite, 62, 63
f
growth/reproduction of, 7, 8,
96–110
cell cycle and,
96
–99, 97
f
, 98
f
,
100–101
f
miscellaneous DNA roles and,
105–109
organelle and cytosolic
protein degradation and,
109–110
protein synthesis and, 99–105,
102
f
, 103
f
, 104
f
, 106–107
f
,
108
f
, 109
f
membrane of, 62,
63
–81, 63
f
,
64
f
, 94
t
.
See also
Plasma
membrane
nucleus of, 62, 63
f
,
91
–96, 92
f
, 93
f
,
95–96
t
polarity of, resting membrane
potential and,
79
,
397
, 398
f
Cell adhesion molecules (CAMs),
127,
80
, 640
nerve cell, 423
in phagocyte mobilization, 769
Carriers (protein), 65, 66
f
,
69
in active transport, 73
in diffusion,
69
, 69
f
, 72
t
CART.
See
Cocaine- and
amphetamine-regulated
transcript
Cartilage(s), 129
t
,
132
–134, 135–136
f
.
See also
specific type
elastic, 129
t
,
134
, 135
f
,
174
, 175
f
in endochondral ossification, 183,
184
f
fibrocartilage, 129
t
, 136
f
,
143
,
174
, 175
f
growth of, 174
hyaline, 129
t
,
134
, 135
f
,
174
, 175
f
injury/repair of, 134, 269, 269
f
in longitudinal bone growth, 185,
186
f
skeletal,
174
, 175
f
Cartilage (endochondral) bones,
183
Cartilage plates, bronchial, 811
Cartilage tears, 269, 269
f
Cartilaginous joints,
251
–252, 251
f
,
253
t
Cascades, positive feedback
mechanisms as, 10
Case study
autonomic nervous system, 543
b
blood, 657
b
bones/skeletal tissue, 198
b
, 248
b
cardiovascular system
blood vessels, 750
b
heart, 691
b
central nervous system, 482
b
digestive system, 905
b
endocrine system, 630
b
heredity, 1107
b
integumentary system, 172
b
joints, 275
b
lymphatic system/immunity, 761
b
muscular system, 318
b
, 385
b
nervous system, 427
b
nutrition/metabolism, 953
b
pregnancy, 1094
b
reproductive system, 1063
b
respiratory system, 848
b
special senses, 590
b
urinary system, 989
b
Caspases, in apoptosis, 110
Catabolic-anabolic steady state,
930–931, 930
f
Catabolism, 5,
36
,
913
–914, 914
f
.
See
also
Digestion
postabsorptive state and, 933–
935, 934
f
, 935
f
Catalase(s), 86
Catalysts,
38
, 50, 51–52, 52–53, 52
f
.
See also
Enzymes
Catalytic receptor proteins, 81
Cataplexy, 455
Cataract,
553
, 553
f
Catecholamines,
414
, 615, 616, 616
t,
617
f
Cathelicidins, 162
Catheter, urinary,
982
Catheterization, cardiac,
690
Cation(s),
32
resting membrane potential and,
397, 398
f
Cauda equina, 465
f
,
466
, 501
f
Caudal (term), 12
t
.
See also
under
Inferior
Cardioacceleratory center,
676
, 677
f
,
704, 705, 706, 706
f
, 709
f
Cardiogenic shock,
717
Cardioinhibitory center,
676
–677,
677
f
, 705, 706, 706
f
Cardiomyopathy, 685,
690
Cardiovascular center, 447,
705
, 706,
706
f
Cardiovascular system, 5
f
, 6
f
.
See
also
Blood; Blood vessels;
Circulation; Heart
autonomic nervous system and,
540
b
, 746
b
blood vessels,
692
–750, 694
f
, 695
f
,
696
t
case study and, 750
b
digestive system and, 746
b
, 900
b
endocrine system and, 626
b
, 746
b
fetal (fetal circulation), 745, 1074
f
,
1079–1081, 1080
f
changes in at birth, 1080
f
,
1087
heart, 658–691,
659
homeostatic relationships of, 5
f
,
746
b
integumentary system and, 168
b
,
746
b
lymphatic system and, 746
b
, 761
b
muscular system and, 314
b
, 746
b
physiology/functions of,
2
, 6
f
pregnancy and, 1083
reproductive system and, 746
b
,
1059
b
respiratory system and, 746
b
,
843
b
skeletal system and, 195
b
, 746
b
thyroid hormone affecting, 607
t
urinary system and, 746
b
, 1013
b
Caries, dental (cavities),
861
Carina, 802
f
,
809
Carotene,
156
, 911
Carotid arteries, 724
f
, 724
t
, 725
f
, 726
f
,
727
f
atherosclerosis affecting, 700–
701
b
common, 724
f
,
724
t
, 725
f
, 726
f
,
726
t
, 728
f
, 729
f
pulse at, 710
f
external, 725
f
, 726
f
,
726
t
, 727
f
internal, 725
f
, 726
f
,
726
t
, 727
f
Carotid bodies, 707,
726
t
,
836
, 836
f
,
837
f
Carotid canal, 206
f
,
208
,
216
t
Carotid sinuses, 706, 706
f
,
726
t
Carotid sinus reflex,
707
Carpal bones/carpus (wrist), 200
f
,
232
–234, 232
f
,
233
t
muscles of, 354–357
t
, 355
f
, 357
f
,
358
t
, 359
f
Carpal tunnel, 234
Carpal tunnel syndrome, 234, 506
Carpometacarpal joint
of digits, 254
t
of thumb, 254
t
Carpus (wrist)
bones of (carpals), 200
f
,
232
–234,
232
f
, 233
t
muscles of, 354–357
t
, 355
f
, 357
f
,
358
t
, 359
f
Carrier-mediated facilitated diffusion,
69, 69
f
, 72
t
Carriers (genetic), 1100, 1103, 1104
f
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