Index
I-9
in acid-base balance, 1005, 1006,
1007, 1007
f
Carbonic acid–bicarbonate buffer
system,
41
,
832
,
1005
.
See also
Bicarbonate/carbonic acid–
bicarbonate buffer system
Carbonic anhydrase,
829
, 833
f
, 1007,
1007
f
Carbon monoxide (CO), 416
t
,
417
Carbon monoxide poisoning,
829
Carboxypeptidase,
883
, 883
f
, 893
f
,
894
f
,
895
Carbuncles,
171
Carcinoembryonic antigen, in cancer
vaccine, 146
b
Carcinogenesis, 145
b
, 146
Carcinoma,
149
.
See also
Cancer
Cardia (cardial region of stomach),
865
, 865
f
Cardiac catheterization,
690
Cardiac center, medullary, 447, 538,
676–677, 677
f
, 705
Cardiac conduction system.
See
Conduction system of heart
Cardiac cycle,
679
–681, 680
f
Cardiac impression, 814
f
Cardiac muscle/cardiac muscle tissue,
138
, 139
f
,
277
, 310–311
t
,
671
–673, 672
f
, 673
f
.
See also
Heart
aging affecting, 687
contraction of, 311
t
, 671–673,
673
f
electrical events and, 674–678,
674
f
, 675
f
, 677
f
, 678
f
, 679
f
development of, 312–315
energy requirements of, 673–674
homeostatic imbalance and, 674
length-tension relationship in,
682
Cardiac muscle bundles, 661, 661
f
Cardiac muscle cells/fibers, 138, 139
f
,
310
t
,
671
–673, 672
f
, 673
f
.
See
also
Cardiac muscle/cardiac
muscle tissue
Cardiac notch, 814
f
,
815
Cardiac output,
681
–685, 682
f
, 683
f
,
701, 704, 705
f
blood pressure and, 704, 705
f
,
706, 706
f
, 709
f
homeostatic imbalance of, 685
pregnancy and, 1083
Cardiac pacemaker cells, 311
t
,
674
action potential initiation and,
674
–675, 674
f
defects in, 676
sequence of excitation and,
675–676, 675
f
Cardiac plexus,
528
, 532
f
Cardiac reserve,
682
aging affecting, 687
Cardiac skeleton,
661
, 666
f
, 671, 675
Cardiac (gastroesophageal) sphincter,
862
Cardiac tamponade, 661
Cardiac veins, 663–664
f
,
670
, 670
f
,
737
f
Cardial orifice,
862
Cardial region of stomach (cardia),
865
, 865
f
Cardinal (lateral cervical) ligaments,
1037
f
,
1038
Capsular ligaments, of synovial joints,
252
Capsular space,
960
colloid osmotic pressure in, 965
hydrostatic pressure in, 965
f
,
966
Capsule.
See specific type
Capsule imaging,
17
b
Caput medusae, 881
Carbaminohemoglobin,
635
,
829
,
833
f
Carbohydrate(s), 8,
43
, 44
f
, 908, 909
t
absorption of, 893
f
, 896, 897
f
in absorptive state, 931
f
, 932
athletes and, 925
digestion of, 892–894, 893
f
interconversion of, 930–931, 930
f
metabolism of, 914
f
, 917–928,
917
f
, 929
t
gluconeogenesis in, 614, 618,
925, 929
t
glucose oxidation in, 917
f
,
918–924, 920
f
, 921
f
, 922
f
,
923
f
, 924
f
glycogenesis and
glycogenolysis in, 924–
925, 925
f
, 929
t
, 933, 934
f
liver in, 933, 934
f
, 937
t
thyroid hormone affecting,
607
t
supply of (carbohydrate pool),
930
–931, 930
f
Carbohydrate pool,
930
–931, 930
f
Carbon, 25, 26
t
as chemically reactive element,
31
f
electroneutrality of,
42
isotopes of, 28
in organic compounds, 41–42
Carbon dioxide, 34, 34
f
acid-base balance/blood pH and,
832, 1006, 1009, 1010
t
, 1011
b
respiratory compensations
and, 832, 837, 1006,
1011–1012
tubular secretion of hydrogen
and, 1007, 1007
f
in blood, erythrocytes carrying,
635, 829
exchange of, 802, 811, 813
f
, 825–
827, 826
f
, 827
f
partial pressure of (P
CO
2
), 824,
825
t
in acidosis/alkalosis, 832,
1006, 1009, 1010
t
, 1011
b
alveolar, 825, 825
t
external respiration
(pulmonary gas exchange)
and, 826, 826
t
hemoglobin saturation
affected by, 828–829, 832
f
internal respiration and, 826
f
,
827
normal, 1011
b
respiratory rate/depth affected
by, 835–836, 836
f
, 837,
1006
transport and, 829, 832, 833
f
ventilation affected by, 827,
827
f
solubility of, 824
transport of, 635, 829–832, 833
f
Carbonic acid, 39
Calculus (dental),
861
Callus, 152
in bone repair
bony,
191
, 191
f
fibrocartilaginous,
191
, 191
f
Calmodulin,
307
, 308
f
, 311
t
,
595
Calories, 907
protein synthesis and, 910
Calorigenic effect, of thyroid
hormone,
607
Calorimeter,
941
Calvaria (cranial vault), 201
Calyces (calyx), renal (major and
minor),
956
, 957
f
cAMP.
See
Cyclic AMP
cAMP response-element binding
protein (CREB), in memory,
458
Canal(s), bone, 181, 181
f
, 182
f
Canaliculi
bile, 880
f
,
881
bone, 181, 182
f
lacrimal,
546
, 546
f
Cancellous bone.
See
Spongy bone
Cancer, 145–146
b
.
See also
specific
type or organ affected
aging and, 146
basement membrane ignored in,
118
glycocalyx changes in, 66
sentinel nodes in,
763
Cancer chemotherapy, 146
b
Cancer vaccine, 146
b
Canines (eyeteeth),
860
, 860
f
Cannabinoid receptors, 417
Cannon, Walter, 8
Canthi/canthus, medial and lateral,
545
, 545
f
Capacitance vessels, veins as, 695
f
,
699
Capacitation,
1066
Capillaries.
See also
specific organ or
structure supplied
blood, 693, 694
f
, 695
f
,
696
–698,
696
t
, 697
f
, 698
f
blood flow through/capillary
dynamics, 716–717, 716
f
,
718–719
f
, 720
f
blood flow velocity and, 712,
712
f
blood pressure in, 703, 703
f
blood volume in, 699
f
in tissue repair, 142
true,
698
, 698
f
lymphatic, 695
f
,
752
–753, 752
f
Capillary beds,
698
, 698
f
nephron, 961
f
, 962
Capillary blood pressure, 703, 703
f
Capillary colloid osmotic pressure
(OP
c
/oncotic pressure),
717
,
718–719
f
Capillary gas exchange, 716, 716
f
,
811, 813
f
Capillary hydrostatic pressure (HP
c
),
716
, 718–719
f
Capillary plexus, primary and
secondary,
599
, 601
f
Capillary pores (fenestrations), 697,
697
f
glomerular, 958, 964
f
, 965
Capitate, 232
f
, 233
t
,
234
Capitulum,
230
, 230
f
C.
See
Carbon
Ca.
See
Calcium
Cadherins, 66, 67
f
, 80
Café coronary, 809
Cajal, interstitial cells of, 873
Calcaneal nerve, 509
t
Calcaneal (Achilles) tendon, 242, 327
f
rupture of,
384
Calcaneal tuberosity, 241
f
,
242
Calcaneus, 241
f
,
242
,
243
t
Calcarine sulcus, 434
f
, 436
Calcification
cartilage, 174
metastatic, 611
trigger for, 187
Calcification front, 187
Calcification zone (epiphyseal plate),
185, 186
f
Calcitonin,
187
, 607,
610
Calcitriol,
623
parathyroid hormone and, 611
Calcium, 8, 26
t
, 913, 915
t
absorption of, 898, 1003
balance of
abnormalities of, 188, 998
t
.
See also
Hypercalcemia;
Hypocalcemia
developmental aspects of,
1012
regulation of, 1003–1004
in blood clotting, 647
t
, 648, 648
f
in bone matrix/tissue, 136, 183
in bone remodeling, 187, 188,
188
f
calcitonin and, 610
cardiac function affected by, 683,
683
f
, 684
cross bridge activity and, 289,
292
f
deficiency of, 915
t
osteomalacia and rickets and,
192
dietary, 913, 915
t
information transfer at chemical
synapse and, 408–410, 409
f
in muscle contraction, 287
f
, 289,
311
t
cardiac muscle, 311
t
, 673, 673
f
excitation-contraction
coupling and, 286
f
, 289,
291
f
, 307, 308
f
smooth muscle, 307, 308
f
, 311
t
for osteoporosis, 193
parathyroid hormone relationship
and, 188, 188
f
, 596, 597
f
, 611,
611
f
, 898,
1003
–1004
in plasma/interstitial fluid/
intracellular fluid, 992
f
as second messenger, 81,
421
in taste transduction, 569
tubular reabsorption of, 1003–
1004
vitamin D in regulation of, 898
Calcium channels
in cardiac muscle contraction,
673, 673
f
, 674
f
,
675
information transfer at chemical
synapse and, 408, 409
f
male infertility and, 1033
in skeletal muscle contraction,
287
f
, 289
in smooth muscle contraction, 306
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