I-8
Index
Bridge of nose, 212, 803, 803
f
Brittle bone disease (osteogenesis
imperfecta),
149
,
198
Broad ligament,
1036
, 1037
f
Broca’s area,
433
–435, 434
f
,
455
language and, 455, 456
Bronchi/bronchial tree, 805
t
, 809–
812,
810
, 811
f
, 812
f
, 815
f
airway resistance in, 820, 820
f
Bronchial arteries,
729
t
,
816
Bronchial circulation, 816
Bronchial veins, 741
t
, 816
Bronchioles,
810
carbon dioxide partial pressures
affecting, 826, 827, 827
f
respiratory,
811
, 812
f
, 813
f
terminal,
810
, 812
f
, 813
f
Bronchitis, chronic, 839
f
,
840
Bronchomediastinal trunks,
753
, 753
f
Bronchopulmonary dysplasia, 821
Bronchopulmonary segments,
815
,
815
f
Bronchoscopy,
848
Bronchus.
See
Bronchi
Bronzing of skin, 157
Brown fat (brown adipose tissue),
130
, 947
Browning reactions, 948
Brows (eyebrows),
545
, 545
f
Bruises, 157
Brush border, 118, 876
f
,
877
, 877
f
.
See also
Microvilli
of proximal convoluted tubule,
960, 960
f
Brush border enzymes,
877
, 893
f
,
894
f
, 895
Bruxism,
904
Buboes, 756
Buccal branch of facial nerve, 497
t
,
498
t
Buccal cavity, 856.
See also
Mouth
Buccal glands (intrinsic salivary
glands), 858
Buccal phase of swallowing,
863
,
864
f
, 885
t
Buccinator muscle,
330
t
, 331
f
,
332
t
,
333
f
, 856
Buffers, in acid-base balance,
41
chemical, 41,
1004
–1006, 1005
f
physiological, 41
Buffy coat,
632
, 632
f
Bulb(s)
olfactory, 566
f
,
567
of penis, 1019
f
,
1023
, 1023
f
of vestibule, 1040
f
,
1041
Bulbar conjunctiva, 545
f
,
546
Bulbospongiosus muscle,
344
t
, 345
f
Bulbo-urethral glands, 1019, 1019
f
,
1023
f
,
1026
, 1056
f
Bulbous corpuscles (Ruffini endings),
486
t
,
487
Bulbus cordis, 686, 686
f
Bulimia,
904
–905
Bulk flow, 716–717, 718–719
f
Bundle branches, 675
f
,
676
Bundle of His (atrioventricular
bundle),
675
, 675
f
Bundles, cardiac muscle, 661, 661
f
Burn(s),
165
–167, 165
f
, 166
f
Burn blister, 155, 166, 166
f
Bursae, 153
f
,
253
Bursitis,
270
brain stem gray matter, 443
brain stem white matter, 443
cerebellar gray matter, 447.
See also
Cerebellar cortex
cerebellar white matter, 447
cerebral gray matter, 438
f
,
450
t
.
See also
Cerebral
cortex
cerebral white matter, 431,
437
, 438
f
, 439
f
higher mental functions and,
452–458
homeostatic imbalances/
dysfunction of, 462–464,
474–475
inflammation of (encephalitis),
460
perfusion (blood flow) of, 712,
712
f
, 714–715
protection of, 458–462
regeneration and, 492
regions/organization of, 429
f
,
430, 430
f
swelling of (cerebral edema),
463
traumatic injury of, 462–463
veins of, 721, 738–739
f
, 738
t
ventricles of, 429, 429
f
,
430
, 431
f
Brain death, 452,
454
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor
(BDNF), in memory, 458
Brain stem,
429
, 430
f
, 443–447, 443
f
,
444–445
f
, 446
f
, 451
t
autonomic regulation by, 538,
538
f
development of,
429
, 429
f
Brain vesicles, 1077
primary,
429
, 429
f
secondary,
429
, 429
f
Brain waves,
452
–453, 453
f
Branchial groove (pharyngeal cle±),
585
Braxton Hicks contractions, 1085
BRCA1/BRCA2
genes, 1042
Breast(s) (mammary glands),
161
,
1041
–1043, 1042
f
, 1043
f
.
See
also
Mammary glands
Breast cancer, 1042–1043
Breast feeding.
See
Lactation
Breast milk, benefits of, 1088
Breathing,
802
,
816
, 817–820, 818
f
,
819
f
.
See also
Respiration
altitude affecting, 838–839
apneustic, 834
cessation of.
See
Apnea
Cheyne-Stokes,
848
exercise affecting, 838
expiration and, 802, 818
f
, 819–
820, 819
f
immediately a±er birth, 841–842
inspiration and, 802, 818–819,
818
f
, 819
f
mechanics of, 816–823, 817
f
, 818
f
,
819
f
, 820
f
, 823
f
, 823
t
muscles of, 340
t
, 341
f
, 818
f
, 819
neural control of, 834–835, 834
f
,
835
f
physical factors influencing,
820–821, 820
f
rate and depth of, factors
affecting, 835–838, 835
f
, 836
f
,
837
f
Breech presentation, 1086
Bone deposit, 187
in osteoporosis, 192
Bone lining cells,
181
Bone markings,
179
, 180
t
Bone marrow
B cell maturation in, 776
cancer of (leukemia), 645
hematopoiesis in, 177, 636, 654
red,
179
,
636
stimulation of, in joint therapy,
271
b
yellow, 178, 178
f
, 179
Bone marrow biopsy,
657
Bone mass, aging/osteoporosis
affecting, 192, 192
f
, 194, 245
Bone matrix, 177, 179, 181, 185
f
Bone remodeling, 186
f
,
187
–191,
189
f
, 188
f
, 191
f
in longitudinal bone growth, 185,
186
f
Bone repair, 191–192, 191
f
Bone resorption,
187
, 192
Bone (osseous) tissue, 129
t
,
136
, 137
f
.
See also
Bone(s)
Bony callus, in bone repair,
191
, 191
f
Bony (osseous) labyrinth,
573
, 576
t
Bony pelvis, 238
Bony skeleton, formation of, 183–
187, 184
f
, 185
f
, 186
f
Bony spur,
197
Bony thorax (thoracic cage), 200
f
,
224
–227, 225
f
, 226
f
Booster shots, vaccine, 780
Boundary maintenance,
5
epithelia in, 118
plasma membrane in, 5
skin in, 5, 5
f
, 6
f
, 118, 162–163
Bowman’s (glomerular) capsule,
958–960,
958
, 959
f
, 961
f
Boyle’s law,
817
BPG, hemoglobin saturation affected
by, 828–829
Brachial artery, 725
f
, 728
f
,
728
t
, 729
f
pulse at, 710
f
, 728
t
Brachialis muscle, 326
f
, 327
f
, 351–
352
f
,
353
t
, 358
t
, 359
f
Brachial plexus, 501
f
, 504
f
,
505
–506,
505
t
Brachial vein, 737
f
, 740–741
f
,
740
t
Brachiocephalic trunk (artery), 663
f
,
724
f
,
724
t
, 725
f
, 726
f
, 727
f
,
728
f
, 729
f
Brachiocephalic veins, 736–737
f
,
736
t
, 738–739
f
, 740–741
f
,
740
t
Brachioradialis muscle, 326
f
, 327
f
,
351
f
,
353
t
, 355
f
, 358
t
Brachium.
See
Arm
Brachytherapy, for atherosclerosis,
701
b
Bradycardia,
684
–685
Bradykinin, 715, 770
t
Brain, 387, 388
f
,
429
–452.
See also
specific part
arterial supply of, 726
f
,
727
t
degenerative disease of, 463–464
developmental aspects/
embryology of, 429–430, 429
f
,
430
f
, 475–477, 1077, 1078
f
functional systems of, 449–451,
450–451
t
gray and white matter of,
393
, 430
Bone(s)/skeletal tissue,
(contd.)
in calcium regulation, 1003
case study and, 198
b
, 248
b
chemical composition of, 182–183
classification of, 174–176, 175
f
compact, 129
t
,
177
, 177
f
, 178
f
developmental aspects of,
183–187, 184
f
, 185
f
, 186
f
,
193–194, 194
f
flat,
176
, 176
f
, 177, 177
f
formation of, 183–187, 184
f
, 185
f
,
186
f
fracture of, 190
t
in osteoporosis, 245
pathologic,
198
repair and, 191–192, 191
f
functions of, 176–177
growth of
hormonal regulation of,
186–187
postnatal, 185–187, 186
f
homeostasis (remodeling/repair)
of,
187
–192, 188
f
, 191
f
.
See
also
Bone remodeling; Bone
repair
homeostatic imbalances of,
192–193, 192
f
homeostatic relationships and,
195
b
hormones produced by, 177, 622
t
,
623
irregular,
176
, 176
f
, 177
long,
175
, 176
f
, 177–179, 178
f
endochondral ossification in,
183,
183
–185, 184
f
postnatal growth of, 185–187,
186
f
longitudinal growth of, 185–186,
186
f
mechanical stress affecting, 188,
189
f
membrane,
183
muscle relationships and (lever
systems),
323
–324, 323–324
f
,
325
f
osteoporotic,
192
–193, 192
f
, 245
Pagetic, 193
parathyroid hormone affecting,
188, 188
f
, 611, 611
f
sesamoid,
175
–176
short,
175
–176, 176
f
, 177
spongy, 129
t
,
177
, 177
f
, 178
f
structure of, 177–183
gross anatomy, 177–179, 177
f
,
178
f
, 180
t
microscopic anatomy, 179–
182, 179
f
, 181
f
, 182
f
surface markings of (bone
markings),
179
, 180
t
thyroid hormone affecting, 607,
607
t
woven, 185
f
Bone cells, 129
t
, 179–181, 179
f
.
See
also
Osteoblasts; Osteoclasts;
Osteocytes
Bone collar, in endochondral
ossification,
183
, 184
f
Bone density
aging/osteoporosis and,
192
–193,
192
f
, 194
genetic factors and, 193–194
leptin affecting, 188
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