Index
I-7
BMR.
See
Basal metabolic rate
Body
of bone
of ilium,
234
, 236
f
of ischium,
235
, 236
f
of mandible,
211
, 211
f
of pubis,
235
, 236
f
of sphenoid bone,
209
, 209
f
of sternum, 225, 225
f
of vertebra, 219
f
,
220
, 220
f
,
223
t
of clitoris, 1040
f
,
1041
of epididymis, 1021
f
, 1024
of nail, 160, 160
f
of penis, 1022, 1023
f
of stomach, 865
f
,
866
of uterus, 1037
f
,
1038
Body cavities, 14–20, 18
f
, 19
f
, 20
f
Body defenses.
See also
Immune
system
adaptive,
765
, 765
f
,
773
–796,
791
f
, 792
t
innate,
764
, 765–773, 765
f
, 770
t
,
791
f
.
See also
Innate defenses
Body fluids, 110, 991–993, 991
f
, 992
f
,
993
f
Body mass index (BMI),
939
Body movements, 9
f
, 256–258,
256–257
f
Body planes/sections, 14, 15
f
Body position, muscles in
maintenance of, 277
Body proportions, skeletal growth
and, 244, 245
f
Body regions, anatomical terms
describing,
13
, 13
f
Body surface area, basal metabolic
rate and, 941
Body temperature
metabolic rate and, 941
normal,
8
, 944
as survival need,
8
regulation of, 9, 10
f
, 944–948,
944
f
, 945
f
, 946
f
energy conversions and,
24–25
heat generation by muscles
and, 278, 301, 944
hypothalamus in, 442
skin in, 163, 715
sympathetic nervous system
and, 537
thyroid hormone/thyroxine
in, 607, 607
t
Body tissues.
See
Tissue(s)
Body water, 991, 991
f
.
See also
Water
balance
developmental changes in, 1012
pregnancy and, 1083
Body weight.
See also
Obesity
regulation of, 939–941, 940
f
,
942–943
b
Bohr effect,
829
, 832, 832
f
Boils,
171
Bolus (food),
857
Bonds.
See
Chemical bonds
Bone(s)/skeletal tissue, 129
t
,
136
,
137
f
, 173–198.
See also
specific
named bone and
Skeletal
system; Skeleton
aging affecting, 193–194
appositional growth of, 186, 186
f
Blood sinusoids/sinusoidal
capillaries,
636
, 695
f
,
697
, 697
f
endometrial, 1039, 1039
f
in liver,
878
, 880
f
in splenic pulp, 757
f
,
758
Blood sugar.
See
Glucose
Blood supply.
See
specific organ or
system and
Blood vessels;
Circulation
Blood testis barrier,
1032
Blood tests.
See
Blood chemistry tests
Blood thymus barrier, 758
Blood typing, 653, 653
f
Blood vessels,
692
–750, 694
f
, 695
f
,
696
t
.
See also
specific type and
Circulation
anatomy of, 693, 694
f
, 695
f
, 696
t
atherosclerosis affecting,
700
701
b
, 745
autonomic innervation/effects
and, 526, 526
f
, 530
f
, 532
f
,
536–537, 536
t
case study and, 746
b
circulation physiology and,
701–717, 718–719
f
, 720
f
circulatory pathways and,
721–745
clot in (thrombus),
650
congenital disorders of, 745
constriction of,
693
, 714
f
.
See also
Vasoconstriction
developmental aspects of, 745
diameter of, resistance and, 702,
709
f
dilation of,
693
, 714
f
.
See also
Vasodilation
embolus/embolism and,
650
pulmonary, 650,
848
interconnections (anastomoses)
of, 695
f
,
699
length of, resistance and, 702, 709
f
structure of walls of, 693, 694
f
tunics of, 693, 694
f
Blood viscosity, 702
Blood volume, 632
aldosterone regulation and, 613
f
,
972, 999–1000, 1000
f
, 1002
f
blood pressure and, 704, 708–710,
708
f
, 709
f
, 1002
f
pregnancy and, 1083
reduced, hypovolemic shock and,
717
, 720
f
, 967
thirst mechanism and, 994–995,
994
f
Blue cones, 554
f
, 559
B lymphocytes (B cells),
642
, 643
f
,
754
,
775
, 777, 779
t
, 791
f
, 792
t
activation/differentiation of, 778,
778
f
, 791
f
helper T cells in, 788, 788
f
antigen presentation by, 777
clonal deletion and, 776
clonal selection of, 778
f
, 779
in humoral (antibody-mediated)
immune response, 765
f
,
779
t
, 791
f
, 792
t
.
See also
Humoral (antibody-mediated)
immunity
memory, 777, 778
f
, 791
f
T cell interaction and, 777
B lymphocyte precursor, 643
f
,
644
BMI.
See
Body mass index
Blood chemistry tests, 654,
657
diagnostic, 653–654
for genetic screening, 1103
Blood clot (fibrin mesh), 142, 143
f
,
646
f
, 647, 648–649, 648
f
,
649
f
.
See also
Fibrin mesh;
Coagulation
Blood doping,
640
Blood flow (blood circulation),
701
.
See also
specific organ
autoregulation of,
712
–713, 714
f
distribution of, 712, 712
f
pressure/resistance relationship
and, 702
through body tissues (tissue
perfusion), 711–717, 712
f
,
714
f
, 716
f
, 718–719
f
, 720
f
velocity of, 712, 712
f
Blood fraction,
657
Blood glucose.
See
Glucose
Blood groups, 651–652, 652
t
, 653
f
multiple-allele inheritance and,
1100
, 1100
t
transplantation and, 790
typing and, 653, 653
f
Blood islands, 654,
745
Bloodless MRI,
17
b
Blood plasma, 129
t
, 136, 137
f
, 632,
632
f
,
633
, 633
t
,
991
, 991
f
.
See
also
Plasma
Blood poisoning (septicemia),
657
Blood pressure,
701
–702
age affecting, 745
aldosterone regulation and, 613
f
,
707
t
, 708
f
,
709
–710, 972,
999–1000, 1000
f
, 1002
f
arterial,
703
, 703
f
autonomic nervous system in
regulation of, 536, 539
capillary, 703, 703
f
flow/resistance relationship and,
702, 704, 705–707, 705
f
, 706
f
,
709
f
glomerular filtration rate and, 968
homeostatic imbalances in, 710–
711.
See also
Hypertension;
Hypotension
hormonal control of, 707, 707
t
, 708
f
measuring, 710
neural control of, 705–707, 705
f
,
706
f
normal, 703, 710
pregnancy and, 1083, 1085
regulation/maintenance of,
704–711, 705
f
, 706
f
, 707
t
, 708
f
,
709
f
, 1002
f
long-term, 704, 708–710, 708
f
,
709
f
short-term, 704, 705–707,
705
f
, 706
f
, 707
t
renal regulation of, 708–710, 708
f
,
709
f
, 1002
f
systemic, 702–704, 703
f
, 704
f
thirst mechanism and, 994–995,
994
f
thyroid hormone affecting, 607
venous, 703–704, 703
f
, 704
f
varicose veins and, 699
Blood pressure cuff, 710
Blood reservoir
skin as, 163
veins as,
699
, 699
f
Birth control, 1090–1091
b
Birth control pill, 1090
b
2,3-Bisphosphoglycerate (BPG),
hemoglobin saturation
affected by, 828–829
Bisphosphonates, for osteoporosis,
193
Bitter taste, 569
Black-and-blue marks, 157
Blackhead, 162
Black patients, sickle-cell anemia in,
639
Bladder.
See
Urinary bladder
Bladder cancer,
988
Blanching, 156
Blast cells, 128, 129
t
.
See also
specific
type
Blastocyst,
1067
, 1071
f
formation of, 1067, 1071
f
implantation of,
1067
–1071,
1071
f
, 1072
f
Blastomeres, 1067
Bleaching of the pigment, 560–
561
,
560
f
, 563
Bleeding disorders, 650–651,
650
anemia and, 638
Blepharitis,
590
Blindness, 436, 565
color,
559
functional, 436
night, 563, 912
t
optic nerve damage causing, 494
t
trachoma causing,
590
Blind spot (optic disc), 548
f
,
551
, 551
f
Blinking, 546
Blister(s), 155, 166, 166
f
Blood, 129
t
,
136
, 137
f
, 631–656.
See
also
Blood cells; Plasma
case study and, 657
b
components of, 632, 632
f
developmental aspects of, 654
distribution functions of, 632
formed elements of, 632, 632
f
,
634
–636, 634
f
, 641
f
, 644
t
.
See
also
Blood cells
gas transport by, 635, 716, 716
f
,
802, 828–832, 830–831
f
, 832
f
,
833
f
hemostasis and,
646
–651, 646
f
,
647
t
, 648
f
, 649
f
pH of, 40
f
, 41, 632, 1004.
See also
Acid-base balance; pH, of
blood
physical characteristics of, 632
protective functions of, 633
regulatory functions of, 632–633
transfusion/replacement of,
651–653
blood groups and, 651–652,
652
t
, 653
f
Blood air barrier (respiratory
membrane)
See
Respiratory
membrane
Blood brain barrier,
462
, 697
Blood buffers, acid-base balance and,
41.
See also
Buffers
Blood cells, 136, 137
f
, 632, 632
f
,
634
–636, 634
f
, 641
f
, 644
t
.
See
also
specific type
formation of (hematopoiesis/
hemopoiesis), 177,
636
, 654.
See also
Hematopoiesis
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