I-6
Index
carbon dioxide transport as,
829–832, 833
f
in mucosal barrier, 867
normal levels of, 1011
b
in pancreatic juice, 883, 884
in plasma/interstitial fluid/
intracellular fluid, 992
f
regeneration of, 1007–1008,
1008
f
, 1009
f
tubular reabsorption and, 973
f
,
1007, 1007
f
tubular secretion and, 1009
Bicarbonate/carbonic acid–
bicarbonate buffer system,
41
,
832
,
1005
bicarbonate reabsorption and,
1007, 1007
f
bicarbonate regeneration and,
1007–1008, 1008
f
, 1009
f
Biceps brachii muscle, 326
f
, 350
t
,
351–352
f
,
353
t
, 358
t
, 359
f
tendon of long head of, 264, 265
f
Biceps femoris muscle, 327
f
, 367
f
,
369
t
, 380
t
Bicipital groove (intertubercular
sulcus),
228
–230, 230
f
Bicuspid (mitral) valve,
662
, 665
f
,
666
f
Bicuspids (premolars),
860
, 860
f
Bilayer, plasma membrane, 63, 64
f
Bile/bile salts, 46
t
, 878,
881
–882, 893
f
,
895, 895
f
, 896
homeostatic imbalances and, 156
regulation of secretion of, 883–
884, 884
f
in urine, 980
t
Bile canaliculi, 880
f
,
881
Bile duct, 875
f
,
878
, 879
f
, 880
f
blockage of, 882
Biliary calculi (gallstones),
882
Biliopancreatic diversion (BPD), for
obesity, 943
b
Bilirubin, 156, 638, 638
f
, 881–882
Bilirubinuria, 980
t
Binucleate cells, 101
f
Biochemistry,
38
–56
inorganic compounds in, 38–41,
38
organic compounds in,
38
, 41–56
Biofeedback/biofeedback training,
538
Biogenic amines,
414
–417, 415
t
Biological colloids, 38
Biology, molecular, 2
Biopsy, in cancer diagnosis,
145
b
Biotin, 912
t
Biotransformation, liver in, 937
t
Bipennate fascicle pattern/muscles,
322
f
, 323
Bipolar cells, retinal, 550
f
,
551
Bipolar neurons,
393
, 394–395
t
Birth,
1085
–1087, 1085
f
, 1086
f
adjustment to extrauterine life
aFer, 1087
bone development at, 193
digestive system aFer, 899
heart aFer, 686–687, 1080
f
, 1087
heart before, 685–686, 686
f
, 1079,
1080
f
oxytocin in labor and, 11, 599,
602
t
,
1085
, 1085
f
Birth canal, 1040.
See also
Vagina
Basal plate,
475
Basal surface, epithelial,
118
, 119
f
Base
of bone, of metacarpals, 232
f
,
234
of heart,
659
, 660
f
of lung, 814
f
,
815
Base(s) (chemical),
39
–40
amino acids as, 47
pH of, 40, 40
f
strong,
41
, 1004
weak,
41
, 1004
Base(s) (nucleotide), 53, 54
f
DNA,
54
, 54
f
RNA, 55
Basement membrane,
118
cancer and, 118
glomerular, 964
f
, 965
Base pairing, DNA, 54, 54
f
Basic electrical rhythm, of stomach,
873
Basilar artery, 726
f
, 727
f
,
727
t
Basilar membrane, 574
f
,
575
, 577
f
resonance of, 577
f
, 578
Basilic vein, 737
f
, 740–741
f
,
740
t
Basolateral membrane, in tubular
reabsorption, 968, 969, 969
f
,
970
f
Basophilic erythroblasts,
636
, 636
f
Basophils, 641
f
,
642
, 643
f
, 644
t
in immediate hypersensitivity,
795, 795
f
B cells.
See
B lymphocytes
BDN± (brain-derived neurotrophic
factor), in memory, 458
Beau’s lines, 160
Bedsores (decubitus ulcers),
171
Behavioral methods, for
contraception,
1090
b
Bell’s palsy, 497
t
Benign neoplasm,
145
b
Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH),
1025
Beriberi, 912
t
Bernard, Claude, 990
Beta (β) adrenergic receptors,
534
535, 534
t
Beta-amyloid peptide, in Alzheimer’s
disease, 463–464
Beta-carotene, 911
Beta (β) cells, pancreatic,
618
, 618
f
,
624
b
Beta (β)-defensins.
See also
Defensins
Beta endorphin, 416
t
,
417
Beta (β) globin chains, 635, 635
f
Beta globulin, 633
t
Beta (β) interferon, 770
t
, 771, 790
t
Beta oxidation,
926
, 926
f
, 929
t
Beta (β) particles, 28
Beta (β)-pleated sheet,
48
, 49
f
Beta waves,
452
, 453
f
Biaxial movement,
256
, 261
f
Bicarbonate/bicarbonate ion,
40
,
829
in acid-base balance, 41, 832,
1005, 1010, 1010
t
, 1011
b
.
See
also
Bicarbonate/carbonic
acid–bicarbonate buffer
system
renal compensations and,
1006–1009, 1007
f
, 1008
f
,
1009
f
, 1012
in acidosis/alkalosis, 1010, 1010
t
,
1011
b
of motor neurons, 286, 293, 294
f
in motor unit, 293, 294
f
myelinated, 392, 392
f
.
See also
Myelin sheath(s)
conduction velocity and, 405,
406
f
nonmyelinated, 392, 393
conduction velocity and, 405,
406
f
olfactory, 566, 566
f
, 567
regeneration of, 491–492, 492
f
transport along, 392
Axon collaterals,
391
Axon hillock,
391
, 391
f
Axon terminals,
391
, 391
f
in chemical synapses, 407, 409
f
at neuromuscular junction, 286,
287
f
, 288
f
, 293, 294
f
, 511
Axosomatic synapses,
407
, 408
f
Azygos system, 736
f
, 740–741
t
,
740
t
Azygos vein, 740–741
f
,
740
t
B7 proteins, in co-stimulation, 786
Babinski’s sign,
519
Baby teeth (deciduous/primary
dentition),
859
, 860
f
Back
innervation of, 509
intrinsic (deep) muscles of, 336–
338
t
, 339
f
Bacterial flora, in digestion, 890
Bactericidal action, of sebum, 162
B agglutinins, 651, 652
t
B agglutinogens, 651, 652
t
Bainbridge (atrial) reflex,
684
Balance.
See
Equilibrium/orientation
Baldness (true/frank), 159, 167
male pattern,
159
Ball-and-socket joints, 258,
261
f
Balloon angioplasty, 701
b
Band cells,
642
, 643
f
Bare area of liver, 878, 879
f
Baroreceptors/baroreceptor reflexes,
684,
706
–707, 706
f
, 1000
blood pressure and, 705,
706
–707,
706
f
, 708, 708
f
, 709
f
, 995,
1000, 1002
f
sodium regulation and, 999
t
,
1000, 1002
f
Barrett’s esophagus,
904
Barrier methods, for contraception,
1090
b
Basal bodies,
90
, 90
f
.
See also
Centrioles
Basal cell carcinoma, of skin,
164
, 164
f
Basal compartment, of seminiferous
tubule, 1031
f
,
1032
Basal epithelial cells, taste bud, 568,
568
f
Basal ganglia.
See
Basal nuclei
Basal lamina,
118
Basal layer (stratum basalis) of
endometrium,
1039
, 1039
f
Basal metabolic rate,
941
–942
thyroid hormone/thyroxine
affecting, 607, 607
t
,
941
Basal nuclei (basal ganglia), 431, 438
f
,
439
–441, 439
f
, 450
t
in memory, 457
f
, 458
in motor control,
512
–513, 512
f
in Parkinson’s disease, 444
Autonomic nervous system,
(contd.)
sympathetic (thoracolumbar),
387
, 388
f
, 525
f
,
526
–527,
526
f
, 527
f
,
529
–533, 529
t
,
530
f
, 532
f
drug effects and, 535, 535
t
dual innervation and,
526
, 536
t
heart regulation and, 527
f
, 528
f
,
532
f
, 536
t
, 540
b
, 676–677,
677
f
, 682
f
, 683, 684, 705
f
homeostatic imbalances of, 537,
539
homeostatic relationships of, 540
b
hypothalamus in control of, 442,
538, 538
f
physiology of, 529
t
, 533–539,
534
t
, 535
t
, 536
t
, 538
f
smooth muscle innervated by,
306, 306
f
, 308, 311
t
somatic nervous system
compared with, 525–526, 526
f
Autonomic neuropathy,
537
Autonomic (visceral) reflex,
513
,
533, 533
f
Autophagosomes, 109
Autophagy, 109
Autopsy,
149
Autoregulation
blood flow,
712
–713, 714
f
cerebral, 714–715
renal,
966
–967, 967
f
in ventilation-perfusion coupling,
826–827, 827
f
Autorhythmicity.
See
Automaticity
Autosome(s),
1054
,
1096
Avascularity
of cartilage, 132
of epithelial tissue, 118
Avogadro’s number,
30
AV valves.
See
Atrioventricular (AV)
valves
Axial region,
13
, 13
f
Axial skeleton,
174
, 175
f
, 199–227,
200
, 200
f
.
See also
specific
region and specific bone
skull, 200
f
,
201
–215, 201
f
, 202
f
,
203
f
, 204–205
f
, 206
f
, 207
f
,
216–217
t
thoracic cage, 200
f
,
224
–227, 225
f
,
226
f
vertebral column (spine), 200
f
,
218
–224, 218
f
, 219
f
, 220
f
,
221
f
, 222
f
, 223
t
, 224
f
Axial tomography.
See
Computed
tomography
Axillary artery, 725
f
, 727
f
, 728
f
,
728
t
,
729
f
Axillary (lateral) border of scapula, 228
Axillary lymph nodes, 753
f
Axillary nerve, 504
f
, 505
t
,
506
Axillary vein, 736–737
f
, 740–741
f
,
740
t
Axis (C
2
),
221
, 221
f
, 222
f
Axoaxonal synapses, 407, 408
f
Axodendritic synapses,
407
, 408
f
Axolemma,
391
Axon(s), 140,
391
, 391
f
, 394
t
action potential generated in, 400
conduction velocity of action
potential and, 405, 406
f
functional characteristics of,
391–392
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