Index
I-5
Auditory cortex, primary, 434
f
,
436
,
579
, 579
f
Auditory (acoustic) canal/meatus,
external, 204
f
, 206
f
,
208
, 208
f
,
216
t
,
570
–572, 571
f
Auditory ossicles, 571
f
,
572
, 572
f
,
577, 577
f
Auditory pathway, 579, 579
f
Auditory processing, 579
Auditory (pharyngotympanic) tube,
571
f
,
572
, 572
f
, 804
f
, 806
Auras,
453
olfactory, 570
preseizure,
453
Auricle (atrial),
662
, 663–664
f
Auricle (pinna),
570
, 571
f
Auricular nerve, greater, 503
f
, 503
t
Auricular surface
of ilium,
235
, 236
f
of sacrum,
222
, 224
f
Auricular vein, posterior, 738–739
f
Auscultation, 2
Auscultatory method, for blood
pressure measurement,
710
Autism,
482
Autoantibodies, 794
Autocrines,
592
AutograFs,
790
for burn injury, 166
Autoimmune diseases,
794
rheumatoid arthritis as, 270, 794
Autoimmunity,
794
Autologous chondrocyte
implantation, 271
b
Autologous transfusions,
653
Autolysis,
87
Automaticity (autorhythmicity)
of cardiac muscle,
671
, 674.
See also
Cardiac pacemaker
cells
action potential initiation
and, 672
respiratory rhythm and, 835
Autonomic dysreflexia, 539
Autonomic ganglia,
525
, 526
f
Autonomic (visceral) motor (VM)
neurons,
468
, 468
f
.
See also
Motor (efferent) neurons
Autonomic nervous system,
387
,
388
f
,
524
–543, 525
f
, 527
f
.
See also
Parasympathetic
(craniosacral) division of
autonomic nervous system;
Sympathetic (thoracolumbar)
division of autonomic nervous
system
anatomy of, 427
f
, 527–533, 528
f
,
529
t
biofeedback in regulation of,
538
blood pressure and, 536, 539
case study and, 543
b
control of, 538, 538
f
developmental aspects of, 539
digestion/digestive system and,
528
f
, 532
f
, 536
t
, 540
b
, 852,
853
f
, 900
b
divisions of, 526–527, 527
f
, 529
t
.
interactions of, 535–537, 536
t
parasympathetic
(craniosacral),
387
, 388
f
,
525
f
,
526
, 526
f
,
527
–529,
527
f
, 528
f
, 529
t
Atlanto-occipital joint, 254
t
Atlas (C
1
),
221
, 221
f
, 222
f
Atmospheric pressure,
8
,
816
appropriate, as survival need,
8
partial pressures and, 824
respiratory pressures and,
816
817, 817
f
Atom(s), 3, 4
f
,
25
–28, 25
f
, 27
f
Atomic mass number,
27
Atomic mass unit,
25
Atomic number,
27
Atomic symbols,
25
Atomic weight,
28
Atonic bladder,
543
Atopic dermatitis, 800
ATP (adenosine triphosphate), 5, 24,
55
–56, 55
f
, 56
f
,
906
in active transport, 56
f
, 73, 74
f
, 78
t
chemical energy in form of, 24, 55
in exchange reactions, 36, 36
f
mitochondrial supply of, 83
for muscle contraction, 56
f
,
298–300, 299
f
, 300
f
cross bridge cycling and, 289,
292
f
, 293
smooth muscle and, 308
as neurotransmitter, 416
t
,
417
synthesis of, 914, 914
f
, 916–917,
916
f
, 917
f
, 918–924, 918
f
, 920
f
,
921
f
, 923
f
, 924
f
fat metabolism in, 914
f
, 926,
927
f
glucose metabolism in, 36, 36
f
,
37, 43, 55, 56, 914
f
, 917
f
,
918–924, 918
f
, 920
f
, 921
f
,
923
f
, 924
f
ATPase, myosin, 303
t
, 307, 308
f
ATP synthases, 917,
922
–923, 923
f
Atria of heart, 659,
662
, 663–665
f
,
669
f
development of, 685, 686
f
hormones produced by, 621, 622
t
.
See also
Atrial natriuretic
peptide
Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP),
613
f
, 614,
621
, 622
t
,
707
, 972,
1000
, 1001
f
blood pressure/volume and, 614,
707
, 707
t
, 709
f
, 1000, 1001
f
in sodium regulation, 614, 999
t
,
1000
, 1001
f
tubular reabsorption and, 972,
1000, 1001
f
Atrial (Bainbridge) reflex,
684
Atrial systole, 680
f
, 681
Atrial tachycardia, paroxysmal,
691
Atrioventricular (AV) bundle
(bundle of His),
675
, 675
f
Atrioventricular groove (coronary
sulcus),
662
Atrioventricular (AV) node,
675
, 675
f
Atrioventricular (AV) valves, 662–667,
666
f
, 667
f
.
See also
Mitral
(bicuspid) valve; Tricuspid valve
Atrium.
See
Atria
Atrophy,
110
disuse, 305
Atropine, autonomic activity and, 535
Attenuated pathogens, for vaccines,
780
Auditory areas, 434
f
, 436
Auditory association area, 434
f
,
436
Articular processes, 219
f
,
220
–221,
220
f
, 222
f
, 223
t
of sacrum,
222
, 224
f
Articular surfaces, synovial joint
stability and, 255
Articular tubercle,
267
, 268
f
Articulations,
249
–275.
See also
Joint(s)
Artifacts, in microscopy,
118
Artificial joints, 271
b
Artificially acquired immunity
active, 780, 780
f
passive, 780, 780
f
Artificial skin, for burn injury, 166
Arytenoid cartilage, 807
f
,
808
Ascending aorta, 724
f
,
724
t
, 725
f
Ascending colon, 850
f
,
887
, 888
f
Ascending limb of nephron loop,
959
f
,
960
, 961
f
as countercurrent multiplier, 973,
974–975
f
, 976
reabsorptive capability of, 971–
972, 971
t
Ascending lumbar veins, 741
f
,
742–743
f
leF,
741
t
, 742–743
f
right,
740
t
, 742
f
Ascending (sensory) pathways/tracts,
468, 468–469, 469
f
, 470
f
, 471
t
Ascites,
904
Ascorbic acid (vitamin C), 912, 912
t
deficiency of (scurvy),
149
, 912
t
A site, 105, 106
f
, 107
f
Aspartate,
417
Aspartic acid, 48
f
Aspiration,
847
–848
Aspiration pneumonia, cleF lip/
palate and, 244
Aspirin,
650
in atherosclerosis prevention,
701
b
Assisted reproductive technology,
1089
Association areas, 432, 434
f
auditory, 434
f
,
436
limbic,
437
multimodal, 434
f
,
436
–437
somatosensory, 434
f
,
436
visual, 434
f
, 565
Association cortex
language and, 455
memory and, 457
f
, 458
Association fibers,
437
, 438
f
Association neurons.
See
Interneurons
Asters, 100
f
Asthma, 795, 820,
840
Astigmatism,
556
Astrocytes,
389
, 389
f
Asystole,
690
Atelectasis,
817
Atheroma(s), 700
b
Atherosclerosis,
685
, 687,
700
–701
b
,
745
blood flow affected by, 695
cholesterol levels and, 700
b
,
937–938
Atherosclerotic (fibrous) plaques,
700
b
Athlete(s), carbohydrate needs and,
925
Atlantoaxial joint, 254
t
Arm
bones of, 228–230, 230
f
deep artery of, 728
f
,
728
t
, 729
f
muscles of/muscles controlling
movement of, 326
f
, 327
f
,
346–348
t
, 347–349
f
, 350–352
t
,
351–352
f
, 358
t
, 359
f
Arrector pili muscle(s), 151
f
, 158
f
,
159
autonomic innervation/effects
and, 532
f
, 536
t
Arrest lines (growth), 183
Arrhythmias,
676
, 679
f
Arterial anastomoses,
699
Arterial blood pressure,
703
, 703
f
,
709
f
.
See also
Blood pressure
Arterial pulse, 703,
710
monitoring, 710, 710
f
Arteries, 693–696,
693
, 694
f
, 695
f
.
See
also
specific structure supplied
or specific named artery
blood flow velocity and, 712, 712
f
blood pressure in,
703
, 703
f
.
See
also
Blood pressure
blood volume in, 699
f
pulmonary, 722
f
,
722
–723
t
, 814
f
,
815
structure of, 694
f
, 695, 696, 696
t
systemic, 721, 724–725
f
, 724
t
Arteriolar vasodilation, in blood
pressure regulation, 706, 706
f
,
713
Arterioles, 693, 695
f
,
696
, 696
t
blood flow velocity and, 712
f
blood pressure in, 703
f
, 705
blood volume in, 699
f
glomerular, 961
f
, 962
oxygen partial pressures affecting,
826, 827, 827
f
terminal, 695
f
,
698
, 698
f
Arteriosclerosis,
700
b
.
See also
Atherosclerosis
Arteriovenous anastomoses, 695
f
,
699
Arthritis,
270
–272
gouty,
272
Lyme,
272
osteoarthritis,
270
rheumatoid (RA),
270
–272, 272
f
,
794
Arthrology,
275
Arthroplasty,
275
Arthroscopic surgery, for cartilage
tear,
269
, 269
f
Articular (joint) capsule,
252
, 252
f
of elbow joint, 266, 266
f
of hip joint, 266–267, 267
f
of knee joint, 262
f
, 263
of shoulder joint, 265
f
Articular cartilage, 134, 174, 175
f
,
178
f
,
252
, 252
f
aFer endochondral ossification,
184, 184
f
in symphyses, 251, 251
f
in synovial joints,
252
, 252
f
Articular (joint) cavity,
20
, 252,
252
f
.
See also
Joint (articular/
synovial) cavities
Articular discs (menisci),
253
of knee,
262
–263, 262–263
f
injuries of, 264, 264
f
, 269, 269
f
of temporomandibular joint, 267,
268
f
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