I-4
Index
Apical membrane, in tubular reabsorp-
tion, 968, 969, 969
f
, 970
f
Apical surface, epithelial,
118
, 119
f
Aplastic anemia, 639
Apnea,
836
sleep,
455
, 842
Apneustic breathing, 834
Apocrine glands, 125
Apocrine sweat glands,
161
Apoenzyme,
52
Aponeuroses, 132,
279
Apoptosis,
110
natural killer cells and, 766
neuronal development and, 423
T cell development and, 776,
776
f
, 787
APP.
See
Amyloid precursor protein
Appendages
body.
See
Lower limbs; Upper
limbs
epiploic,
887
, 888
f
skin, 151
f
,
157
–162, 158
f
, 160
f
,
161
f
.
See also
specific structure
Appendicitis,
887
Appendicular region,
13
, 13
f
Appendicular skeleton,
174
, 175
f
,
200
f
,
227
–243, 243
t
.
See also
specific region and specific
bone
congenital abnormalities of, 245
lower limbs, 200
f
, 238–243, 239
f
,
240
f
, 241
f
, 242
f
, 243
t
pectoral (shoulder) girdle, 200
f
,
227
–228, 227
f
, 233
t
pelvic (hip) girdle, 200
f
,
234
–238,
235
f
, 236
f
, 237
t
, 243
t
upper limbs, 200
f
, 228–234, 230
f
,
231
f
, 232
f
, 233
t
Appendix, 756
f
,
759
, 850
f
,
887
, 888
f
Appetite,
953
Appositional growth
of bone, 186, 186
f
of cartilage, 174
Aquaporins (AQPs), 69
f
,
70
Aqueous humor, 548
f
,
552
, 552
f
in glaucoma, 553
Arachidonic acid, 47
2-Arachidonoylglycerol, 416
t
Arachnoid mater
of brain,
459
, 459
f
, 460
f
spinal, 464, 465
f
, 467
f
Arachnoid villi,
459
, 459
f
Arbor vitae, 440
f
,
447
, 448
f
Arches of foot,
242
, 242
f
muscles supporting, 376–377
t
,
377
f
, 379
f
Arcuate arteries
of foot, 725
f
, 734–735
f
,
734
t
of kidney,
957
, 958
f
, 961
f
of uterus,
1039
, 1039
f
Arcuate line,
235
, 236
f
Arcuate nucleus, 442
f
food intake regulation and, 939,
940, 940
f
Arcuate popliteal ligament, 262
f
,
263
Arcuate veins,
957
, 958
f
, 961
f
ARDS (adult respiratory distress
syndrome),
847
Areola,
1041
, 1042
f
Areolar connective tissue, 127, 128
f
,
129
t
,
130
, 131
f
.
See also
Connective tissue
MHC proteins and, 784–786,
785
f
, 786
t
Antihemophilic factor (AHF/factor
VIII), 647
t
,
650
deficiency of, hemophilia A
caused by, 650
Anti-insulin effect, of growth
hormone, 603
Antimicrobial proteins, 770
t
,
771
773, 771
f
, 772
f
Anti-oncogenes (tumor suppressor
genes),
145
b
UV radiation affecting, 164
Antioxidants, 111, 912–913
Antiport system,
73
Antirachitic factor.
See
Vitamin D
Anti-Rh antibodies, 652
Antisense RNAs,
105
Antithrombin III,
649
Antitoxin, passive immunity and, 780
Antivenom, passive immunity and,
780
Antral (tertiary/vesicular) follicles,
1036
, 1036
f
, 1044
f
, 1045–1047,
1046
f
,
1047
, 1050
f
Antral phase, of ovarian cycle, 1045,
1046
f
Antrum
mastoid,
572
ovarian follicle,
1036
, 1036
f
,
1046
f
,
1047
pyloric,
866
Anucleate cells,
91
, 634
Anular ligament,
266
, 266
f
Anulospiral (primary sensory)
endings,
514
, 514
f
Anulus fibrosus,
219
, 219
f
, 220
f
Anuria, 968
Anus, 850
f
,
887
, 888
f
.
See also
under
Anal
development of, 898, 899
f
Anvil (incus), 571
f
,
572
, 572
f
, 577
f
Aorta,
662
, 669
f
, 724
f
,
724
t
, 725
f
abdominal, 724
f
,
724
t
, 725
f
,
730–733
f
, 730
t
branches of, 724
f
, 730–733
f
,
730–732
t
ascending, 724
f
,
724
t
, 725
f
blood flow velocity and, 712, 712
f
blood pressure in, 703
f
coarctation of, 686, 687
f
descending,
724
t
thoracic,
724
t
, 728
f
, 729
f
Aortic arch, 663
f
, 724
f
,
724
t
, 725
f
,
728
f
baroreceptors in, 706, 706
f
Aortic bodies, 707,
836
, 836
f
, 837
f
Aortic reflex,
707
Aortic sinus, 724
t
Aortic valve (aortic semilunar valve),
665
f
, 666
f
,
667
APCs.
See
Antigen-presenting cells
Apex
of heart,
659
, 660
f
, 663
f
of lung, 814
f
,
815
of nose, 803, 803
f
Apgar score,
1087
Aphasia, 455
Apical-basal polarity, epithelial, 118
Apical foramen, of root canal, 860
f
,
861
Apical impulse,
659
, 660
f
in breast milk/colostrum, 780,
780
f
, 1088
in complement activation, 772,
772
f
diversity and, 777
in humoral immune response,
773, 778
f
,
780
–784, 791
f
, 792
t
monoclonal,
783
self (autoantibodies), 794
Antibody diversity, generation of, 777
Antibody-mediated (humoral)
immunity.
See
Humoral
(antibody-mediated)
immunity
Antibody monomer,
781
, 781
f
Antibody titer, 779
Anticancer drugs (chemotherapy), 146
b
Anticoagulants,
648
–649, 650
Anticodon(s),
104
, 106–107
f
, 109
f
Antidiuretic hormone (ADH/
vasopressin),
599
–601,
600
,
600
f
, 602
t
,
707
, 972, 995, 996
f
blood pressure/volume and,
707
,
707
t
, 708
f
, 709
f
, 995, 996
f
,
1002
f
syndrome of inappropriate
secretion of (SIADH), 601,
602
t
,
1017
tubular reabsorption and, 972,
995, 996
f
urea recycling and, 976, 977
f
urine concentration and, 976,
977
f
, 995, 996
f
in water balance regulation, 442,
599, 602
t
, 995, 996
f
, 999
t
,
1002
f
Antigen(s), 651, 754, 773–
774
, 774
f
,
791
f
, 792
t
.
See also
Immunity/
immune response
autoimmune disease and, 794
endogenous,
784
exogenous,
784
naive lymphocyte encountering,
776–777
presentation of, 163, 774,
777
778, 777
f
, 791
f
, 792
t
MHC proteins and, 784–786,
785
f
, 786
t
T cell activation and, 777,
777
f
, 791
f
receptors for, diversity and, 777
red blood cell, blood groups and,
651
transplantation and, 790
self,
774
, 786
autoimmune disease and, 794
development of tolerance to,
776, 776
f
MHC proteins and, 784
T cell-dependent,
788
T cell-independent,
788
transplantation and, 790
Antigen-antibody (immune)
complexes,
781
, 782
f
hypersensitivity reactions and,
796
Antigen binding, T cell activation
and, 786, 787
f
Antigen-binding site,
781
, 781
f
Antigenic determinants,
774
, 774
f
Antigen-presenting cells, 774,
777
778, 777
f
, 791
f
, 792
t
Anterior cranial fossa, 201, 201
f
,
202
,
207
f
Anterior cruciate ligament, 262–263
f
,
263
–264, 264
f
Anterior cutaneous branch of
intercostal nerve, 502
f
Anterior division, brachial plexus,
505
Anterior extensor compartment of
leg, muscles of, 370
t
Anterior femoral cutaneous nerve, 507
f
Anterior flexor compartment of
forearm, 351–352
f
, 353
t
,
354–355
t
, 355
f
, 358
t
, 359
f
Anterior fontanelle, 244, 244
f
Anterior forearm muscles, 351–352
f
,
353
t
, 354–356
t
, 355
f
, 358
t
Anterior fornix, 1035
f
, 1040
Anterior (ventral) funiculi, 467
f
,
468
Anterior gluteal line,
235
, 236
f
Anterior (ventral) horns, 431
f
, 439
f
,
466
, 467
f
, 468
f
Anterior inferior iliac spine, 234,
235
f
, 236
f
Anterior intercostal arteries, 728
f
,
729
f
,
729
t
Anterior interventricular artery (le±
anterior descending artery),
663
f
,
668
, 670
f
Anterior interventricular sulcus,
662
Anterior lobe, of cerebellum,
447
,
448
f
Anterior longitudinal ligament,
219
,
219
f
Anterior (ventral) median fissure,
466
, 467
f
Anterior muscles/muscle
compartment
of hip and thigh, 364
f
, 365–366
t
,
380
t
, 381
f
of leg, 370
t
, 371
t
, 380
t
, 381
f
Anterior nasal spine, 211
f
,
212
, 214
f
Anterior pituitary gland
(adenohypophysis),
598
, 601
f
aging affecting, 623
hormones of, 601–606, 602–603
t
hypothalamus relationship and,
601
f
, 1033, 1034
f
Anterior pole of eye, 548
f
,
549
Anterior sacral foramina,
224
, 224
f
Anterior scalene muscle, 336
t
, 337
f
Anterior segment of eye, 548
f
, 549,
552
, 552
f
Anterior semicircular canal, 573, 573
f
Anterior (ventral) spinothalamic
tracts,
469
, 469
f
, 471
t
Anterior superior iliac spine, 234–
235,
234
, 235
f
, 236
f
Anterior thalamic nuclei, limbic
system and, 449, 449
f
Anterior tibial artery, 725
f
, 734–735
f
,
734
t
Anterior tibial vein, 737
f
, 744
f
,
744
t
Anterior vagal trunk,
529
Anterograde amnesia, 458
Anterograde movement, 392
Anteverted uterus, 1038
Anti-A antibodies, 651, 652
t
Anti-B antibodies, 651, 652
t
Antibodies, 50, 51
t
,
642
, 754, 773,
780
784, 781
f
, 782
f
, 783
t
, 791
f
, 792
t
.
See also
Humoral (antibody-
mediated) immunity
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