Index
I-3
Andropause, 1058
Androstenedione,
615
Anemia(s),
638
–640.
See also
specific
type
Anemic hypoxia,
829
Anencephaly,
476
Anergy,
786
Aneurysm,
750
Angelman syndrome, 1103
Angina pectoris,
671
Angiogenesis, 713
Angiogram/angiography,
750
cerebral, 475
digital subtraction (DSA),
16
b
, 17
f
Angioplasty, balloon, 701
b
Angiotensin I, 708
f
,
709
Angiotensin II, 613
f
,
614
,
707
,
709
blood pressure/glomerular
filtration and,
707
, 707
t
, 708
f
,
709
f
, 999–1000, 1000
f
, 1002
f
sodium regulation and, 999–1000,
999
t
, 1000
f
, 1001
f
, 1002
f
Angiotensin converting enzyme,
708
f
,
709
, 816
Angiotensinogen,
614
, 708
f
,
709
Angular body movements,
256
–258,
256–257
f
Anion(s),
32
acids releasing, 39
balance of, regulation of, 1004
protein, in plasma/interstitial fluid/
intracellular fluid, 992, 992
f
resting membrane potential and,
397
Ankle joint, 255
t
muscles controlling movements
of, 370–373
t
, 371
f
, 372
f
,
374–375
f
, 380
t
, 381
f
Ankyloglossia, 857
Ankylosing spondylitis,
275
Ankylosis, in rheumatoid arthritis,
272, 272
f
Annular (common tendinous) ring,
547
, 547
f
Anopsias, 494
t
Anosmias, 494
t
, 570
ANP.
See
Atrial natriuretic peptide
ANS.
See
Autonomic nervous system
Ansa cervicalis, 503
f
, 503
t
Antacid,
1017
Antagonism, hormone,
598
Antagonist (muscle),
320
Antebrachial vein, median, 740–741
f
,
740
t
Antebrachium, 231.
See also
Forearm
Anterior (term), 12
t
.
See also
under
Ventral
Anterior arch, 221, 221
f
Anterior association area (prefrontal
cortex), 434
f
,
437
.
See also
Prefrontal cortex
Anterior border, of tibia, 240
f
,
241
Anterior cardiac veins, 663
f
,
670
, 670
f
Anterior cerebral artery, 726
f
,
726
t
,
727
f
Anterior chamber,
552
, 552
f
Anterior circumflex humeral artery,
728
f
,
728
t
, 729
f
Anterior commissure,
437
, 440
f
, 442
f
,
449
f
Anterior communicating artery, 726
f
,
726
t
, 727
f
Amplitude, sound wave, 575
f
,
576
,
576
f
Ampulla,
1024
of ductus deferens, 1019
f
, 1023
f
,
1024
hepatopancreatic,
875
, 875
f
of semicircular duct,
573
, 573
f
of uterine tube,
1037
, 1037
f
Ampullary cupula,
581
, 582
f
Amygdaloid body/amydala, 418
b
,
449
, 449
f
Amylase,
883
pancreatic,
883
,
892
, 893
f
salivary, 51
t
, 859, 885
t
,
892
, 893
f
Amyloid precursor protein (APP), in
Alzheimer’s disease, 463–464
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS/
Lou Gehrig’s disease), 474
Anabolic hormones/steroids, 312,
313
b
, 910
Anabolism, 5,
36
,
913
–914, 914
f
absorptive state and, 931–933,
931
f
, 932
f
synthesis reactions and,
36
Anaerobic glycolysis, 298–
299
, 914,
914
f
, 916–917, 917
f
,
918
–919,
918
f
, 924
f
, 929
t
muscle activity and, 298–
299
,
299
f
, 300
f
, 311
t
Anaerobic threshold,
300
Anal canal, 850
f
,
887
, 888, 888
f
Anal columns,
888
, 888
f
Analgesia,
523
Anal sinuses,
888
, 888
f
Anal sphincters, 887, 888
f
external,
344
t
, 345
f
,
887
, 888
f
internal,
887
, 888
f
Anal veins, varices of (hemorrhoids),
699, 890
Anandamide, 416
t
Anaphase
in meiosis, 1029, 1030
f
in mitosis, 97
f
,
98
, 101
f
Anaphylactic shock, 717,
795
Anaplasia,
115
Anastomoses (vascular), 695
f
,
699
portal-caval, 881
Anatomical dead space,
822
–823
Anatomical direction/directional
terms, 12
t
,
13
, 13
f
Anatomical neck, of humerus,
228
,
230
f
Anatomical position,
11
–13, 12
t
, 13
f
Anatomy,
2
complementarity principle and,
3
, 62
terminology used in, 2, 11–20
variability/variations in, 14
Anchoring junctions,
66
–67, 67
f
.
See
also
Desmosomes
Anconeus muscle, 351
f
,
353
t
, 357
f
,
358
t
Androgen(s),
615
.
See also
Testosterone
adrenal, 612
f
,
615
, 616
t
, 1035
apocrine glands and, 161
interstitial endocrine (Leydig) cell
production of, 1021–1022
sebum secretion affected by, 162
terminal hair growth affected
by, 159
Androgen-binding protein,
1033
, 1034
f
Alveolar macrophages,
812
, 813
f
Alveolar pores,
812
, 812
f
, 813
f
Alveolar processes, 204
f
, 205
f
,
211
,
211
f
,
212
, 214
f
Alveolar sacs/saccules,
811
, 812
f
Alveolar surface tension,
820
–821
Alveolar ventilation rate,
823
, 823
t
blood pH and, 1006
Alveoli
dental (tooth sockets), 211,
217
t
,
859
articulation of tooth with
(gomphosis), 250
f
,
251
,
861
of mammary glands,
1041
respiratory/lung, 805
t
,
811
, 812
f
,
813
f
developmental aspects of, 842
gas partial pressures in, 825,
825
t
Alzheimer’s disease, 458,
463
–464
Amacrine cells, in retina, 550
f
Amacrine granule cells, in olfactory
bulb, 567
Amenorrhea, 1051
Amine group, amino acid, 47, 48
f
Amino acid(s),
47
, 48
f
, 893
f
,
894
, 894
f
absorption of, 893
f
, 894
f
, 896
in absorptive state, 931
f
, 932
essential, 910, 911
f
in food intake regulation, 940,
940
f
as neurotransmitters, 415–416
t
,
417
oxidation of, 928–929, 928
f
, 929
t
in postabsorptive state, 935, 935
f
protein synthesis/metabolism
and, 99, 104, 104
f
, 893
f
,
894
,
894
f
, 928–929, 928
f
, 929, 929
t
supply of (amino acid pool),
930
,
930
f
translation in synthesis of,
104
105, 104
f
, 106–107
f
, 108
f
, 109
f
transport of, 896
Amino acid–based hormones,
593
.
See also
Hormone(s)
mechanism of action of, 593–595,
594
f
Amino acid pool,
930
, 930
f
Aminoacyl-tRNA, 104, 105, 106
f
γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA), 415
t
,
417
Aminopeptidase, 894
f
,
895
Amitotic cells, neurons as, 390
Ammonia,
40
, 928
f
,
929
Ammonium ion, 40
excretion of in acid-base balance,
1008, 1009
f
Amnesia, 458
Amniocentesis,
1103
, 1104
f
Amnion, 1073
f
,
1074
, 1074
f
, 1075
f
,
1076
f
, 1078
f
Amniotic cavity, 1073
f
, 1078
f
Amniotic fluid,
1074
testing (amniocentesis),
1103
,
1104
f
Amoeboid motion,
75
,
640
AMP (adenosine monophosphate),
55
f
, 56
cyclic.
See
Cyclic AMP
Amphiarthroses,
250
Amphoteric molecules,
1005
tubular reabsorption and, 972,
973
f
, 999–1000, 1000
f
Aldosteronism (hyperaldosteronism/
Conn’s disease), 614, 616
t
,
1017
Alertness, 453
Alimentary canal (gastrointestinal
tract),
850
, 850
f
.
See also
specific structure and
Gastrointestinal (GI) tract
Alkalemia,
1004
.
See also
Alkalosis
Alkaline phosphatase, in bone
remodeling, 187
Alkaline reserve, 832,
1005
, 1007
Alkaline solution, 40.
See also
Base(s)
Alkaline tide,
871
, 872
f
Alkalosis,
60
,
1004
blood values in evaluation of,
1011
b
effects of, 1010
metabolic,
1010
, 1010
t
, 1011
b
renal compensations and,
1011
,
1012
respiratory (hyperventilation),
836
, 1006,
1009
, 1010
t
, 1011
b
respiratory compensations and,
1011–1012,
1011
Allantois, 1073
f
,
1075
Allele(s),
1096
–1097
multiple-allele inheritance and,
1100
, 1100
t
segregation and,
1097
–1098,
1097
f
Allergen,
795
, 795
f
Allergic asthma, 840
Allergic contact dermatitis,
796
Allergies,
795
, 795
f
protein absorption and, 896
Allogra±s,
790
All-or-none phenomenon,
401
–404
All-or-none rule (amino acid), 910
All-
trans
-retinal,
559
, 560
f
Alopecia,
159
Alopecia areata, 160
Alpha (
) adrenergic receptors,
534
–535, 534
t
Alpha-blocking drugs, 536
Alpha (
) cells, pancreatic,
618
, 618
f
Alpha (
) efferent fibers,
514
, 514
f
,
515
f
-γ coactivation,
514
, 515
f
Alpha (
) globin chains, 635, 635
f
Alpha globulin, 633
t
Alpha (
)-helix,
48
, 49
f
Alpha (
) interferon, 770
t
, 771, 790
t
Alpha (
) motor neurons,
514
, 515
f
Alpha (
) particles, 28
Alpha waves,
452
, 453
f
, 454
f
Alternative pathway, of complement
activation,
772
, 772
f
Altitude
partial pressure affected by, 824
respiratory adjustments and,
838–839
Alveolar cells
type I,
811
, 813
f
type II,
811
, 813
f
Alveolar dead space,
823
Alveolar ducts,
811
, 812
f
Alveolar gas, composition of, 825,
825
t
Alveolar (acinar) glands,
124
, 126
f
previous page 1207 Human Anatomy and Physiology (9th ed ) 2012 read online next page 1209 Human Anatomy and Physiology (9th ed ) 2012 read online Home Toggle text on/off