I-2
Index
Afferent pathway, in homeostasis,
9, 9
f
Affinity
hemoglobin, for oxygen, 828
altitude affecting, 839
hormone–receptor, 595
AFerbirth,
1087
AFer-discharge circuit, parallel, 422
f
AFerload,
683
Ag.
See
Antigen(s)
Age-related macular degeneration
(ARMD),
590
Ageusia,
590
Agglutination,
782
by antibodies,
782
, 782
f
transfusion reaction causing,
652–653, 653
f
, 782
Agglutinins,
651
, 652
t
Agglutinogens,
651
, 652
t
Aggregated lymphoid nodules
(Peyer’s patches), 755, 756
f
,
759
, 760
f
Aging.
See also specific structure or
system
cellular, 111
theories of, 111
Aging pigment (lipofuscin), 390
Agonist (muscle),
320
Agouti-related peptides, in food
intake regulation, 939, 940
f
Agranulocytes, 640, 641
f
,
642
, 643
f
,
644
t
Agrin, 312
AIDS (acquired immune deficiency
syndrome),
793
–794
Air blood barrier (respiratory
membrane).
See
Respiratory
membrane
Air cells, mastoid,
209
, 572
Air flow, resistance to.
See
Airway
resistance
Air movements, nonrespiratory,
823
,
824
t
Airway resistance, 820, 820
f
asthma and, 820, 840
Ala(e)
of ilium,
234
, 236
f
of nose, 803, 803
f
of sacrum,
224
, 224
f
Alar cartilages, 803, 803
f
Alar plate,
475
Albinism,
171
, 1100
Albumin, 51
t
,
633
, 633
t
Albuminuria, 980
t
Alcohol
antidiuretic hormone and, 600,
976
skin permeability and, 163
teratogenic effects of (fetal alcohol
syndrome), 1083
Aldosterone,
612
–614, 612
f
, 613
f
,
616
t
,
709
, 972,
999
blood pressure/volume and, 613
f
,
707
t
, 708
f
,
709
–710, 972, 999–
1000, 1000
f
, 1001
f
, 1002
f
electrolyte balance and, 999–1000,
1000
f
potassium and, 613
f
, 614, 999,
1000
f
, 1003
sodium regulation and, 972,
999
–1000, 999
t
, 1000
f
, 1001
f
,
1002
f
lipolysis in, 933, 934
f
in postabsorptive state, 933, 934,
934
f
, 935, 935
f
Adluminal compartment, of
seminiferous tubule, 1031
f
,
1032
ADP (adenosine diphosphate),
55–56, 55
f
,
646
phosphorylation of, 916–917, 916
f
ATP for muscle activity and,
298, 299
f
, 300
f
platelet aggregation and,
646
Adrenal cortex, 612–615,
612
, 612
f
,
613
f
, 616
t
Adrenal (suprarenal) gland(s), 592
f
,
611
–616, 612
f
, 613
f
, 615
f
,
616
t
, 955.
See also
Adrenal
cortex; Adrenal medulla
aging affecting, 623
arteries of, 730
f
, 732
f
,
732
t
autonomic innervation/effects
and, 527
f
in stress response, 616, 617
f
veins of, 736
f
, 742–743
f
,
742
t
Adrenaline.
See
Epinephrine
Adrenal insufficiency, 614, 616
t
Adrenal medulla,
612
, 612
f
, 615–616,
616
t
, 617
f
autonomic pathways with synapses
in/autonomic innervation and,
532
f
, 533, 536
t
, 537
blood pressure control and, 707,
707
t
Adrenergic fibers,
534
Adrenergic receptors, 534–535, 534
t
Adrenocortical hormones, 46
t
, 47,
612–615, 612
f
, 613
f
, 616
t
Adrenocorticotropic hormone
(ACTH/corticotropin), 601
f
,
603
t
,
605
aldosterone regulation and, 613
f
,
614
cortisol regulation and, 614
in stress response, 614, 617
f
Adrenogenital syndrome, 615, 616
t
Adult respiratory distress syndrome
(ARDS),
847
Adventitia,
855
of esophagus,
855
, 862
f
, 863
tracheal,
809
, 810
f
of ureter, 979, 980
f
vaginal, 1040
Aerobic cellular respiration, 83,
299
.
See also
Cellular respiration;
Krebs cycle
Aerobic endurance,
300
Aerobic exercise,
304
.
See also
Exercise
Aerobic pathways,
919
Affective brain, 449.
See also
Limbic
system
Afferent arteriole, glomerular, 961
f
,
962
Afferent (sensory) division of
peripheral nervous system,
387
, 388
f
Afferent lymphatic vessels,
755
, 756
f
Afferent nerves/neurons/tracts.
See
Sensory (afferent)
nerves; Sensory (afferent)
neurons; Sensory (ascending)
pathways/tracts
Adaptation,
488
dark and light,
563
olfactory, 567
Adaptive immune system/defenses,
765
, 765
f
,
773
–796, 791
f
, 792
t
antigens, 773–
774
, 774
f
cells of, 774–778, 775
f
, 776
f
, 777
f
,
779
t
, 792
t
cellular immune response, 779
t
,
784–790, 785
f
, 786
f
, 787
f
, 788
f
,
789
f
, 790
t
, 791
f
humoral immune response, 765
f
,
773
, 778–784, 779
f
, 779
t
, 780
f
,
781
f
, 782
f
, 783
t
, 791
f
Addison’s disease,
614
, 616
t
, 997,
1000
skin color in, 157
Adduction (body movement), 257
f
,
258
, 321
f
of lower limb, 363
t
, 380
t
, 381
f
of upper limb, 358
t
, 359
f
Adductor(s)/adductor muscles, of
thigh, 326
f
, 327
f
,
363
t
, 364
f
,
365
t
, 381
f
Adductor brevis muscle, 364
f
,
365
t
,
380
t
Adductor hallucis muscle,
378
t
, 379
f
Adductor hiatus, 734–735
f
, 734
t
Adductor longus muscle, 326
f
, 364
f
,
365
t
, 380
t
Adductor magnus muscle, 327
f
, 364
f
,
365
t
, 380
t
Adductor pollicis muscle,
360
t
, 361
f
Adductor tubercle,
238
, 239
f
A delta fibers, 489
Adenine (A),
53
, 54
f
Adenocarcinoma, of lung,
841
Adenohypophysis,
598
.
See also
Anterior pituitary gland
Adenoidectomy
(adenotonsillectomy),
847
Adenoids, 759, 806.
See also
Pharyngeal tonsils
Adenoma,
149
Adenosine, 416
t
,
417
glomerular filtration rate
regulation and, 968
Adenosine deaminase (ADA)
enzyme, defective, 793
Adenosine diphosphate.
See
ADP
Adenosine monophosphate.
See
AMP
Adenosine triphosphate.
See
ATP
Adenotonsillectomy
(adenoidectomy),
847
Adenovirus infection, obesity and, 942
b
Adenylate cyclase, 594
in hormone mechanism of action,
594
, 594
f
ADH.
See
Antidiuretic hormone
Adherence, in phagocytosis, 766, 767
f
Adhesions, 144
Adipocytes (adipose/fat cells),
128
,
128
f
, 129
t
,
130
, 131
f
Adiponectin, 621, 622
t
Adipose (fat) tissue,
128
, 128
f
, 129
t
,
130
, 131
f
, 151, 151
f
, 936
autonomic innervation/effects
and, 536
t
brown,
130
, 947
hormones produced by, 621, 622
t
lipid transport to, 936
Acromial end of clavicle, 227
f
,
228
Acromioclavicular joint, 227
f
,
228
,
254
t
Acromion,
228
, 229
f
, 265
f
Acrosomal reaction,
1066
, 1069
f
Acrosome,
1029
–1032, 1032
f
ACTH.
See
Adrenocorticotropic
hormone
Actin, 51
t
, 87–88, 88
f
,
281
, 282
f
, 311
t
clot retraction and, 649
cross bridge activity and, 289,
292
f
in excitation-contraction
coupling, 291
f
in sliding filament model, 285
Actin (thin) filaments, 87–88, 88
f
,
136,
281
in cardiac muscle, 311
t
, 671
cross bridge cycling and, 289, 292
f
in cytokinesis, 98, 101
f
in microvilli, 91, 91
f
in skeletal muscle, 280
f
,
281
, 282
f
,
283
t
, 311
t
in sliding filament model, 285
in smooth muscle, 307, 308
f
Action potential,
285
, 395, 399,
400
in muscle fiber contraction,
285
cardiac muscle, 672, 673, 673
f
,
674–675, 674
f
, 675–676,
675
f
skeletal muscle,
285
–286,
286–289, 286
f
, 287
f
, 288
f
,
289
f
in neuron, 391, 395, 399,
400
407,
402–403
f
, 404
f
, 405
f
,
406
f
, 412–413
t
graded potential compared
with, 412–413
t
information transfer at
chemical synapse and,
408, 409
f
Activated macrophages, 777
Activation energy,
52
, 52
f
, 918
Activation gate, action potential and,
400, 403
f
Active humoral immunity,
780
, 780
f
Active (exercise) hyperemia,
713
Active processes/transport,
68
, 72–
79, 74
f
, 75
f
, 76
f
, 77
f
, 78
t
in absorption, 896
active transport,
73
, 74
f
, 75
f
, 78
t
electrochemical gradient/
membrane potentials and, 80
in tubular reabsorption of
nutrients/water/ions, 969, 970
f
in tubular reabsorption of
sodium, 969, 970
f
vesicular transport,
73
–78, 76
f
,
77
f
, 78
t
Active sites,
50
, 52–53, 53
f
Active tubular reabsorption, 968
Acute (immediate/type I)
hypersensitivity,
795
, 795
f
Acute glomerulonephritis,
988
.
See
also
Glomerulonephritis
Acute hypotension, 711
Acute leukemia, 645
Acute mountain sickness, 838
Acyclovir, 1054
AD.
See
Alzheimer’s disease
Adam’s apple (laryngeal
prominence),
807
, 807
f
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