State of a plasma membrane of an unstimulated neuron or
muscle cell in which the inside of the cell is relatively negative in com-
parison to the outside; the resting state.
me-ah) An abnormally high number of
A substance of high molecular weight with long, chainlike mol-
ecules consisting of many similar (repeated) units.
tīd) A chain of amino acids.
Benign mucosal tumors.
ah-rīd) Literally, many sugars, a polymer of
linked monosaccharides; e.g., starch, glycogen.
(1) Any bridgelike structure or part; (2) the part of the brain stem
connecting the medulla with the midbrain, providing linkage between
upper and lower levels of the central nervous system.
Te surface opening of the duct of a sweat gland.
Positive feedback mechanisms
Feedback that tends to cause the level of
a variable to change in the same direction as an initial change.
Neural part of pituitary gland; part of the neurohy-
nik) Autonomic motor neuron
that has its cell body in a peripheral ganglion and projects its axon to an
Stored or inactive energy.
Autonomic motor neuron that has its cell body
in the central nervous system and projects its axon to a peripheral
pe-ah) A condition that results in the loss of near
focusing ability; typical onset is around age 40.
Diﬀerence in pressure (hydrostatic or osmotic) that
drives movement of ﬂuid.
Primary active transport
A type of active transport in which the energy
needed to drive the transport process is provided directly by hydrolysis
Muscle that bears the major responsibility for eﬀecting a
particular movement; an agonist.
(1) Prominence or projection; (2) series of actions for a speciﬁc
ter-ōn) Hormone partly responsible for preparing
the uterus for the fertilized ovum.
tin) Adenohypophyseal hormone that stimu-
lates the breasts to produce milk.
shun) Inward rotation of the forearm causing the
radius to cross diagonally over the ulna—palms face posteriorly.
Te ﬁrst stage of mitosis, consisting of coiling of the chromo-
somes accompanied by migration of the two daughter centrioles toward
the poles of the cell, and nuclear membrane breakdown.
tor) Receptor located in a joint, muscle,
or tendon; concerned with locomotion, posture, and muscle tone.
din) A lipid-based chemical messenger
synthesized by most tissue cells; acts locally as a paracrine.
Accessory reproductive gland; produces one-third of semen
volume, including ﬂuids that activate sperm.
tēn) Organic compound composed of carbon, oxygen,
hydrogen, and nitrogen; types include enzymes, structural components;
10–30% of cell mass.
Tat property of membranes that permits passage of mol-
ecules and ions.
ĭ-sōmz) Membranous sacs in cytoplasm contain-
ing powerful oxidase enzymes that use molecular oxygen to detoxify
harmful or toxic substances, such as free radicals.
erz) Lymphoid organs located in the small intestine;
also called aggregated lymphoid nodules.
(pe-āch) Te measure of the relative acidity or alkalinity of a
sis) Engulﬁng of foreign solids by (phagocytic)
o-sōm) Vesicle formed as a result of phagocytosis.
A drug dose that is dramatically higher than nor-
mal levels of that substance (e.g., hormone) in the body.
±ube that connects the middle ear and the
pharynx. Also called auditory tube, eustachian tube.
inks) Muscular tube extending from the region posterior
to the nasal cavities to the esophagus.
no-tīp) Observable expression of the genotype.
id) Modiﬁed lipid, contains phosphorus.
A chemical reaction in which a phosphate molecule is
added to a molecule; for example, phosphorylation of ADP yields A±P.
tor) Specialized receptor cells that respond
to light energy; rods and cones.
sis) Arterial pH lower than 7.35 result-
ing from any cause.
A drug dose that replicates normal levels of that sub-
stance (e.g., hormone) in the body. (
o-je) Study of the function of living organisms.
Pineal gland (body)
e-al) A hormone-secreting part of the dien-
cephalon of the brain thought to be involved in setting the biological
clock and inﬂuencing reproductive function.
sis) Engulﬁng of extracellular ﬂuid by cells.
e) Neuroendocrine gland located beneath
the brain that serves a variety of functions including regulation of go-
nads, thyroid, adrenal cortex, lactation, and water balance.
tah) ±emporary organ formed from both fetal and
maternal tissues that provides nutrients and oxygen to the developing
fetus, carries away fetal metabolic wastes, and produces the hormones of
mah) Te nonliving ﬂuid component of blood within which
formed elements and various solutes are suspended and circulated.
Members of a B cell clone; eﬀector B cells specialized to
produce and release antibodies.
Membrane, composed of phospholipids, cholesterol,
and proteins, that encloses cell contents; outer limiting cell membrane.
let) Cell fragment found in blood; involved in clotting.
re) ±wo layers of serous membrane that line the thoracic
cavity and cover the external surface of the lung.
ral) A potential space between the two layers of
pleura; contains a thin ﬁlm of serous ﬂuid.
sus) A network of converging and diverging nerve ﬁbers,
blood vessels, or lymphatics.
Nonsymmetrical molecules that contain electrically