A hormone that enhances the carrier-mediated diﬀusion of glu-
cose into tissue cells, thus lowering blood glucose levels.
State in which a greater than normal amount of insu-
lin is required to maintain normal glucose blood levels.
Te process by which the nervous system processes and
interprets sensory input and makes decisions about what should be done
at each moment.
tar-e) Skin and its derivatives;
provides the external protective covering of the body.
ted) Specialized connections between
myocardial cells containing gap junctions and desmosomes.
ons) Proteins released from virus-infected
(and other) cells that protect uninfected cells from viral takeover. Also
inhibit some cancers.
Band of projection ﬁbers that runs between the basal
nuclei and the thalamus.
Exchange of gases between blood and tissue ﬂuid
and between tissue ﬂuid and cells.
Interneuron (association neuron)
Nerve cell located between motor
and sensory neurons that shuttles signals through CNS pathways where
tor) Sensory receptor in the viscera that is
sensitive to changes and stimuli within the body’s internal environment;
also called visceroceptor.
One of two major periods in the cell life cycle; includes the
period from cell formation to cell division.
Interstitial endocrine cells
Cells located in the loose connective tissue sur-
rounding the seminiferous tubules; they produce androgens (most impor-
tantly testosterone), which are secreted into the surrounding interstitial ﬂuid.
Interstitial ﬂuid (IF)
al) Fluid between the cells.
Incomplete lamellae that lie between intact osteons,
ﬁlling the gaps between forming osteons, or representing the remnants of
an osteon that has been cut through by bone remodeling.
teh-brul) Discs of ﬁbrocartilage between
Ligament located within and separate from the
articular capsule of a synovial joint.
Intracellular ﬂuid (ICF)
u-ler) Fluid within a cell.
Substance produced by the stomach that is required for
Noncoding segment or portion of DNA that ranges from 60 to
100,000 nucleotides long.
Muscle that cannot ordinarily be controlled volun-
tarily (e.g., smooth and cardiac muscle).
Involuntary nervous system
Te autonomic nervous system.
on) Atom or molecule with a positive or negative electric charge.
nik) Chemical bond formed by electron transfer be-
ter-ul) Situated on the same side.
me-ah) Local decrease in blood supply.
±issue gra² donated by an identical twin.
so-mer) One of two or more substances that has the same mo-
lecular formula but with its atoms arranged diﬀerently.
trik) Contraction in which the muscle
does not shorten (the load is too heavy) but its internal tension increases.
ik) Below normal tone or tension.
A solution that is more dilute (containing fewer
nonpenetrating solutes) than the reference cell. Cells placed in hypotonic
solutions plump up rapidly as water rushes into them.
A decrease in the depth and rate of breathing; charac-
terized by an increase in blood carbon dioxide.
mik) Most common form of shock;
results from extreme blood loss.
se-ah) Condition in which inadequate oxygen is avail-
able to tissues.
kal) Site where the small intestine joins the
e-um) ±erminal part of the small intestine; between the jeju-
num and the cecum of the large intestine.
A functional system whose components attack foreign
substances or prevent their entry into the body.
ĭ-te) Ability of the body to resist many agents (both
living and nonliving) that can cause disease; resistance to disease.
Ability of the body’s immune cells to recognize
(by binding) speciﬁc antigens; reﬂects the presence of plasma
Any congenital or acquired condition causing a
deﬁciency in the production or function of immune cells or certain mol-
ecules (complement, antibodies, etc.) required for normal immunity.
tro) In a test tube, glass, or artiﬁcial environment.
vo) In the living body.
Valve which does not close properly.
Inability to control micturition or defecation voluntarily.
farkt) Region of dead, deteriorating tissue resulting from a
lack of blood supply.
Highly contagious viral disease; marked by
Pertaining to a position toward the lower or tail end of
the long axis of the body.
Inferior vena cava
Vein that returns blood from body areas below the
shun) An innate (nonspeciﬁc) defensive re-
sponse of the body to tissue injury; includes dilation of blood vessels and
an increase in vessel permeability; indicated by redness, heat, swelling,
u-lum) (1) A stalk of tissue that connects the
pituitary gland to the hypothalamus; (2) the distal end of the uterine (fal-
wĭ-nal) Pertaining to the groin region.
Inhibitory postsynaptic potential (IPSP)
A graded potential in a
postsynaptic neuron that inhibits action potential generation; usually
Inner cell mass
Accumulation of cells in the blastocyst from which the
shun) Supply of nerves to a body part.
Chemical substances that do not contain carbon,
including water, salts, and many acids and bases.
Movable attachment of a muscle.
Lobe of the cerebral cortex that is buried in the lateral sulcus be-
neath portions of the parietal, frontal, and temporal lobes.