Weak bond in which a hydrogen atom forms a bridge
between two electron-hungry atoms. An important intramolecular bond.
Hydrogen ion (H
A hydrogen atom minus its electron and therefore
carrying a positive charge (i.e., a proton).
lă-sis) Process in which water is used to split a sub-
stance into smaller particles.
ik) Refers to molecules, or portions of molecules,
that interact with water and charged particles.
bik) Refers to molecules, or portions of mol-
ecules, that interact only with nonpolar molecules.
tic) Pressure of ﬂuid in a system.
Hydroxyl ion (OH
sil) An ion liberated when a hydroxide (a
common inorganic base) is dissolved in water.
ne-ah) High carbon dioxide levels in the blood.
An increase in blood ﬂow into a tissue or organ; congested
mik) Term used to describe hormones
such as glucagon that elevate blood glucose level.
pe-ah) A condition in which visual images are
routinely focused behind rather than on the retina; commonly known as
ze-ah) Accelerated growth, e.g., in anemia, the
bone marrow produces red blood cells at a faster rate.
ah) An increase in ventilation in response to
metabolic need (e.g., during exercise).
An increase in membrane potential in which the
membrane becomes more negative than resting membrane potential.
Overzealous immune response to an otherwise harm-
shun) High blood pressure.
ik) Excessive, above normal, tone or tension.
A solution that has a higher concentration of non-
penetrating solutes than the reference cell; having greater osmotic pres-
sure than the reference solution (blood plasma or interstitial ﬂuid).
trah-fe) Increase in size of a tissue or organ inde-
pendent of the body’s general growth.
An increase in the depth and rate of breathing that is
in excess of the body’s need for removal of carbon dioxide.
Low carbon dioxide levels in the blood.
(superﬁcial fascia) Subcutaneous tissue just deep to the
skin; consists of adipose plus some areolar connective tissue.
mik) Term used to describe hormones such
as insulin that decrease blood glucose level.
Abnormally low concentrations of sodium ions in extra-
me-ah) A condition of unusually
low levels of plasma proteins causing a reduction in colloid osmotic pres-
sure; results in tissue edema.
Low blood pressure.
Nerve bundles that run through the infundibulum and connect the pos-
terior pituitary to the hypothalamus.
ah-mus) Region of the diencephalon form-
ing the ﬂoor of the third ventricle of the brain.
sis) Blood cell formation; hemopoiesis.
Hematopoietic stem cell
ik) Bone marrow cell that
gives rise to all the formed elements of blood; hemocytoblast.
(hēm) Iron-containing pigment that is essential to oxygen trans-
port by hemoglobin.
muh-glo-bin) Oxygen-transporting protein of eryth-
lĕ-sis) Rupture of erythrocytes.
e-ah) A term loosely applied to several diﬀerent
hereditary bleeding disorders that exhibit similar signs and symptoms.
or-ij) Loss of blood from the vessels by ﬂow through
ruptured walls; bleeding.
sis) Stoppage of bleeding.
Natural anticoagulant secreted into blood plasma.
Hepatic portal system
ik) Circulation in which the hepatic por-
tal vein carries dissolved nutrients to the liver tissues for processing.
tis) Inﬂammation of the liver.
ne-ah) Abnormal protrusion of an organ or a body part
through the containing wall of its cavity.
gus) Having diﬀerent allelic genes at a given
locus or (by extension) many loci.
Any nerve serving a muscle that produces movement at a
joint also innervates the joint and the skin over the joint.
lum) ±e indented region of an organ from which blood and/
or lymphatic vessels and nerves enter and exit.
Limbic system structure that plays a role in converting
new information into long-term memories.
tuh-mēn) A chemical messenger (neurotransmitter or
paracrine); causes vasodilation and increased capillary permeability; in
stomach causes acid secretion.
o-je) Branch of anatomy dealing with the microscopic
structure of tissues.
HIV (human immunodeﬁciency virus)
Virus that destroys helper T
cells, thus depressing adaptive immunity; symptomatic AIDS gradually
appears when lymph nodes can no longer contain the virus.
o-krin) Glands that accumulate their secretions
within their cells; secretions are discharged only upon rupture and death
of the cell.
sis) A state of body equilibrium or stable in-
ternal environment of the body.
ŏ-gus) Parts or organs corresponding in structure
but not necessarily in function.
gus) Having identical genes at one or more
Steroidal or amino acid–based molecules released to the
blood that act as chemical messengers to regulate speciﬁc body functions.
mer-ul) Immunity conferred by antibodies
present in blood plasma and other body ﬂuids.
Hereditary disorder leading to degeneration of
the basal nuclei and the cerebral cortex.
ah-līn) ±e most abundant cartilage type in the
body; provides ﬁrm support with some pliability.
Hydrochloric acid (HCl)
ik) Acid that aids protein diges-
tion in the stomach; produced by parietal cells.