G-4
Glossary
Burn
Tissue damage inflicted by intense heat, electricity, radiation, or
certain chemicals, all of which denature cell proteins and kill cells in the
affected areas.
Bursa
(ber
9
sa) A fibrous sac lined with synovial membrane and contain-
ing synovial fluid; occurs between bones and muscle tendons (or other
structures), where it acts to decrease friction during movement.
Bursitis
Inflammation of a bursa.
Calcaneal tendon
(kal-ka
9
ne-al) Tendon that attaches the calf muscles
to the heelbone (calcaneus); also called the Achilles tendon.
Calcitonin
(kal
0
sih-to
9
nin) Hormone released by the thyroid. Lowers
blood calcium levels only when present at high (therapeutic) levels.
Calculus
(kal
9
ku-lus) A stone formed within various body parts.
Callus
(kal
9
lus) (1) Localized thickening of skin epidermis resulting from
physical trauma; (2) repair tissue (fibrous or bony) formed at a fracture site.
Calorie (cal)
Amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of 1
gram of water 1° Celsius. Energy exchanges associated with biochemi-
cal reactions are usually reported in kilocalories (1 kcal
5
1000 cal), also
called large calories (Cal).
Calyx
(ka
9
liks) A cuplike extension of the pelvis of the kidney.
Canaliculus
(kan
0
ah-lik
9
u-lus) Extremely small tubular passage or channel.
Cancer
A malignant, invasive cellular neoplasm that has the capability of
spreading throughout the body or body parts.
Capillaries
(kap
9
il-layr
0
ēs) ±e smallest of the blood vessels and the sites
of exchange between the blood and tissue cells.
Carbohydrate
(kar
0
bo-hi
9
drāt) Organic compound composed of car-
bon, hydrogen, and oxygen; includes starches, sugars, cellulose.
Carbonic acid–bicarbonate buffer system
Chemical system that helps
maintain pH homeostasis of the blood.
Carbonic anhydrase
(kar-bon
9
ik an-hi
9
drās) Enzyme that facilitates the
combination of carbon dioxide with water to form carbonic acid.
Carcinogen
(kar
0
9
no-jin) Cancer-causing agent.
Cardiac cycle
Sequence of events encompassing one complete contrac-
tion and relaxation of the atria and ventricles of the heart.
Cardiac muscle
Specialized muscle of the heart.
Cardiac output (CO)
Amount of blood pumped out of a ventricle in
one minute.
Cardiac reserve
±e difference between resting and maximal cardiac
output.
Cardiogenic shock
Pump failure; the heart is so inefficient that it cannot
sustain adequate circulation.
Cardiovascular system
Organ system that distributes the blood to de-
liver nutrients and remove wastes.
Carotene
(kar
9
o-tēn) Yellow to orange pigment that accumulates in the
stratum corneum epidermal layer and in fatty tissue of the hypodermis.
Carotid body
(kar-rot
9
id) A receptor in the common carotid artery sen-
sitive to changing oxygen, carbon dioxide, and pH levels of the blood.
Carotid sinus
(si
9
nus) A dilation of a common carotid artery; involved
in regulation of systemic blood pressure.
Carrier
A transmembrane protein that changes shape to envelop and
transport a polar substance across the cell membrane.
Cartilage
(kar
9
tĭ-lij) White, semiopaque connective tissue.
Cartilage bone (endochondral bone)
Bone formed by using hyaline
cartilage structures as models for ossification.
Cartilaginous joints
(kar
0
ti-laj
9
ĭ-nus) Bones united by cartilage; no joint
cavity is present.
Basal lamina
(lam
9
ĭ-nah) Noncellular, adhesive supporting sheet con-
sisting largely of glycoproteins secreted by epithelial cells.
Basal metabolic rate (BMR)
Rate at which energy is expended (heat
produced) by the body per unit time under controlled (basal) conditions:
12 hours aFer a meal, at rest.
Basal nuclei (basal ganglia)
Specific gray matter areas located deep
within the white matter of the cerebral hemispheres.
Basal surface
±e surface near the base or interior of a structure; nearest
the lower side or bottom of a structure.
Base
A substance capable of binding with hydrogen ions; a proton
acceptor.
Basement membrane
Extracellular material consisting of a basal lamina
secreted by epithelial cells and a reticular lamina secreted by underlying
connective tissue cells.
Basophil
(ba
9
zo-fil) White blood cell whose granules stain purplish-
black and nucleus purple with basic dye.
Benign
(be-nīn
9
) Not malignant.
Bile
Greenish-yellow or brownish fluid produced in and secreted by the
liver, stored in the gallbladder, and released into the small intestine.
Bilirubin
(bil
0
i-roo
9
bin) Yellow pigment of bile.
Bipolar neuron
Neuron with axon and dendrite that extend from op-
posite sides of the cell body.
Blastocyst
(blas
9
to-sist) Stage of early embryonic development; the
product of cleavage.
Blood pressure (BP)
²orce exerted by blood against a unit area of the
blood vessel walls; differences in blood pressure between different areas
of the circulation provide the driving force for blood circulation.
Blood brain barrier
Mechanism that inhibits passage of materials from the
blood into brain tissues; reflects relative impermeability of brain capillaries.
Bolus
(bo
9
lus) A rounded mass of food prepared by the mouth for swal-
lowing; any soF round mass.
Bone marrow
²at- or blood-forming tissue found within bone cavities;
called yellow and red bone marrow, respectively.
Bone (osseous tissue)
(os
9
e-us) A connective tissue that forms the bony
skeleton.
Bone remodeling
Process involving bone formation and destruction in
response to hormonal and mechanical factors.
Bone resorption
±e removal of osseous tissue; part of the continuous
bone remodeling process.
Bowman’s capsule
(bo-manz)
See
Glomerular capsule.
Boyle’s law
States that when the temperature is constant, the pressure of
a gas varies inversely with its volume.
Bradycardia
(brad
0
e-kar
9
de-ah) A heart rate below 60 beats per minute.
Brain death
State of irreversible coma, even though life-support mea-
sures may have restored other body organs.
Brain stem
Collectively the midbrain, pons, and medulla of the brain.
Brain ventricle
²luid-filled cavity of the brain.
Branchial groove
(brang
9
ke-al) An indentation of the surface ectoderm
in the embryo; the external acoustic meatus develops from it.
Bronchioles
Smaller (
,
1 mm in diameter) branching air passageways
inside the lungs.
Bronchus
(brong
9
kus) One of the two large branches of the trachea that
lead to the lungs.
Buffer
Chemical substance or system that minimizes changes in pH by
releasing or binding hydrogen ions.
previous page 1180 Human Anatomy and Physiology (9th ed ) 2012 read online next page 1182 Human Anatomy and Physiology (9th ed ) 2012 read online Home Toggle text on/off