Tissue damage inﬂicted by intense heat, electricity, radiation, or
certain chemicals, all of which denature cell proteins and kill cells in the
sa) A ﬁbrous sac lined with synovial membrane and contain-
ing synovial ﬂuid; occurs between bones and muscle tendons (or other
structures), where it acts to decrease friction during movement.
Inﬂammation of a bursa.
ne-al) Tendon that attaches the calf muscles
to the heelbone (calcaneus); also called the Achilles tendon.
nin) Hormone released by the thyroid. Lowers
blood calcium levels only when present at high (therapeutic) levels.
ku-lus) A stone formed within various body parts.
lus) (1) Localized thickening of skin epidermis resulting from
physical trauma; (2) repair tissue (ﬁbrous or bony) formed at a fracture site.
Amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of 1
gram of water 1° Celsius. Energy exchanges associated with biochemi-
cal reactions are usually reported in kilocalories (1 kcal
1000 cal), also
called large calories (Cal).
liks) A cuplike extension of the pelvis of the kidney.
u-lus) Extremely small tubular passage or channel.
A malignant, invasive cellular neoplasm that has the capability of
spreading throughout the body or body parts.
ēs) ±e smallest of the blood vessels and the sites
of exchange between the blood and tissue cells.
drāt) Organic compound composed of car-
bon, hydrogen, and oxygen; includes starches, sugars, cellulose.
Carbonic acid–bicarbonate buﬀer system
Chemical system that helps
maintain pH homeostasis of the blood.
drās) Enzyme that facilitates the
combination of carbon dioxide with water to form carbonic acid.
no-jin) Cancer-causing agent.
Sequence of events encompassing one complete contrac-
tion and relaxation of the atria and ventricles of the heart.
Specialized muscle of the heart.
Cardiac output (CO)
Amount of blood pumped out of a ventricle in
±e diﬀerence between resting and maximal cardiac
Pump failure; the heart is so ineﬃcient that it cannot
sustain adequate circulation.
Organ system that distributes the blood to de-
liver nutrients and remove wastes.
o-tēn) Yellow to orange pigment that accumulates in the
stratum corneum epidermal layer and in fatty tissue of the hypodermis.
id) A receptor in the common carotid artery sen-
sitive to changing oxygen, carbon dioxide, and pH levels of the blood.
nus) A dilation of a common carotid artery; involved
in regulation of systemic blood pressure.
A transmembrane protein that changes shape to envelop and
transport a polar substance across the cell membrane.
tĭ-lij) White, semiopaque connective tissue.
Cartilage bone (endochondral bone)
Bone formed by using hyaline
cartilage structures as models for ossiﬁcation.
ĭ-nus) Bones united by cartilage; no joint
cavity is present.
ĭ-nah) Noncellular, adhesive supporting sheet con-
sisting largely of glycoproteins secreted by epithelial cells.
Basal metabolic rate (BMR)
Rate at which energy is expended (heat
produced) by the body per unit time under controlled (basal) conditions:
12 hours aFer a meal, at rest.
Basal nuclei (basal ganglia)
Speciﬁc gray matter areas located deep
within the white matter of the cerebral hemispheres.
±e surface near the base or interior of a structure; nearest
the lower side or bottom of a structure.
A substance capable of binding with hydrogen ions; a proton
Extracellular material consisting of a basal lamina
secreted by epithelial cells and a reticular lamina secreted by underlying
connective tissue cells.
zo-ﬁl) White blood cell whose granules stain purplish-
black and nucleus purple with basic dye.
) Not malignant.
Greenish-yellow or brownish ﬂuid produced in and secreted by the
liver, stored in the gallbladder, and released into the small intestine.
bin) Yellow pigment of bile.
Neuron with axon and dendrite that extend from op-
posite sides of the cell body.
to-sist) Stage of early embryonic development; the
product of cleavage.
Blood pressure (BP)
²orce exerted by blood against a unit area of the
blood vessel walls; diﬀerences in blood pressure between diﬀerent areas
of the circulation provide the driving force for blood circulation.
Blood brain barrier
Mechanism that inhibits passage of materials from the
blood into brain tissues; reﬂects relative impermeability of brain capillaries.
lus) A rounded mass of food prepared by the mouth for swal-
lowing; any soF round mass.
²at- or blood-forming tissue found within bone cavities;
called yellow and red bone marrow, respectively.
Bone (osseous tissue)
e-us) A connective tissue that forms the bony
Process involving bone formation and destruction in
response to hormonal and mechanical factors.
±e removal of osseous tissue; part of the continuous
bone remodeling process.
States that when the temperature is constant, the pressure of
a gas varies inversely with its volume.
de-ah) A heart rate below 60 beats per minute.
State of irreversible coma, even though life-support mea-
sures may have restored other body organs.
Collectively the midbrain, pons, and medulla of the brain.
²luid-ﬁlled cavity of the brain.
ke-al) An indentation of the surface ectoderm
in the embryo; the external acoustic meatus develops from it.
1 mm in diameter) branching air passageways
inside the lungs.
kus) One of the two large branches of the trachea that
lead to the lungs.
Chemical substance or system that minimizes changes in pH by
releasing or binding hydrogen ions.